cytomegalovirus

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cytomegalovirus

(sī'təmĕg'əlōvī`rəs), member of the herpesvirus family that can cause serious complications in persons with weakened immune systems. A common virus, it is estimated that up to 80% of Americans carry cytomegalovirus by the time they reach adulthood. Most experience no symptoms or mild symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, low fever, and fatigue that may or may not be noticed. Cytomegalovirus is present in body fluids (saliva, semen, cervical secretions, and urine) and can be spread from person to person by sexual contact, kissing, or the sharing of food. It can also be transmitted from mother to fetus. The virus usually remains dormant in the body, but it can reactivate and cause serious symptoms in immunologically suppressed patients, such as those with AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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, or in infants whose immune systems are not yet fully developed. An estimated 25% of AIDS patients experience CMV infection, often in the form of a viral retinitis that can lead to blindness. Infants can become infected before birth when the mother becomes infected or experiences a recurrence during pregnancy. In a newborn, CMV can be life-threatening, and it can lead to later complications such as cerebral palsy, blindness, hearing problems, mental retardation, and learning disabilities. The antiviral drugs foscarnet and ganciclovir are used to keep active infections under control.

cytomegalovirus

[¦sīd·ō¦meg·ə·lō′vī·rəs]
(virology)
An animal virus belonging to subgroup B of the herpesvirus group; causes cytomegalic inclusion disease and pneumonia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ganciclovir susceptibilities and analysis of UL97 region in cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolates from bone marrow recipients with CMV disease after antiviral prophylaxis.
First and foremost, because the intended clinical use of the CMV viral load assay in our institution was the serial monitoring of transplant patients, we chose a sample type (plasma) that had been shown to be clinically (not just analytically) useful in detecting CMV disease (not just viremia) after transplantation (7, 24).
There are two medicines that may keep CMV disease from getting worse (ganciclovir and foscarnet).
However, as shown in previous reports, PCR appears to be too sensitive to reliably identify patients at risk to develop CMV disease after stem cell transplantation (8).
The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of patients who developed protocol-defined CMV disease within the first 52 weeks (12 months) post-transplant.
13) Many South African HIV-infected patients present for initiation of HAART when the CD4 count is less than 100 cells/[micro]l, (14) and often the median is less than 50 cells/[micro]l, (15) which makes them susceptible to CMV disease.
Nonetheless, congenital CMV disease was diagnosed in both infection groups at similar rates.
The goals are to identify patients at risk for disease and to give preemptive therapy to prevent the development of CMV disease.
The IMPACT study for the prevention of CMV disease in adult kidney allograft (transplant) recipients was a global, multi-center (65 centers in 13 countries including the United States), double-blind study that randomized 326 high-risk (donor CMV seropositive/recipient CMV seronegative) kidney allograft recipients to one of two treatment groups:
The data presented were derived from CMX001 Study 201*, Chimerix's Phase 2 study evaluating CMX001 for the prevention of CMV disease in HSCT recipients.
CMV viral load testing helps physicians manage immunocompromised patients at risk of CMV disease, including those who have undergone solid organ and stem cell transplantation.
With the adjustment of other factors, six months of preventive therapy reduced the risk of CMV disease by about two-thirds.