In C3 plants, CO2 fixation
and reduction via the Calvin cycle operates in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells (MC), and the NADPH required for CO2 reduction also comes from MC.
Hitch and his colleagues note that this capacity for CO2 fixation
can be five to ten times greater than total greenhouse gas production from some mine operations.
We use electricity to generate formic acid and then use the formic acid to power the CO2 fixation
in bacteria in the dark to produce isobutanol and higher alcohols.
The systems and methods are useful in applications such as energy production, fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and CO2 fixation
However, from ~30 million years ago over sixty plant lineages evolved a version of photosynthesis known as the C4 pathway that increases CO2 fixation
efficiency by about 50%.
Higher gs caused higher CO2 fixation
in oregano clones in also present study.