CRAM


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CRAM

(1) (Chalcogenide RAM) See phase change memory.

(2) (Card Random Access Memory) An early magnetic card mass storage device from NCR that was made available on its 315 computer systems in 1962. It offered reasonably reliable random access storage at a time when magnetic tapes with sequential access were the primary storage medium.

A Mechanical Wonder
CRAM used a removable cartridge housing a deck of 3x14" cards with a magnetic recording surface. There were initially 256, and later 512, cards in the deck, providing 5.5MB and 11MB of storage. With a roomful of 16 units connected to the computer, the total storage capacity was 176 megabytes, a rather large amount of random access capacity for that era.

With air blowing over them to keep them apart, the notched cards were suspended from eight rods that were selectively moved to release a specific card. The card was dropped and wrapped around a rotating drum using air pressure. After reading or writing, it was returned to the cartridge. Every once in a while, two cards dropped at the same time, causing a loud halt to the operation. See RACE and Data Cell.


CRAM Units
NCR's CRAM was a successful addition to its computer line, offering reliable random access during the 1960s. By the end of the decade, magnetic disks were becoming mainstream. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Cram said: "That leaves one place - and it seems to me Matthew will go ahead of Michael Bingham.
More than 30 sporting celebrities joined business leaders from across the region to play golf and raise money for the charity, which was co-founded by Cram and former British Army Major Jim Panton in 2000.
It's an exciting time for the British Athletics endurance programme and it's great to be part of it," said Cram, who won the world 1,500m title in Helsinki in 1983 and Olympic silver over the same distance the following year in Los Angeles.
With the bounce factor from the London Olympics and the prospect of Glasgow hosting the Commonwealth Games in 2014, Cram believes there has never been a better time to get kids into the sport.
Harvesters, a community food bank, had been providing a light cold snack to students in after-school programs at seven elementary schools, but Cram wanted to provide a more substantial meal in more elementary schools.
If she is running the Championships and doing really well, I'm sure I'd get a bit excited," said Cram.
Throughout 2012, The Cram Group will be rolling out a series of next generation application hosting, software and services for both on premise and off premise use that are geared toward driving the adoption of a simplified version of the NIST Cloud standard.
Cram was speaking following reports that a senior anti-doping official has called on the authorities to use more flexibility over recreational drugs.
Cram, one of the most successful middle-distance runners of the 1980s, told the audience that everyone was capable of exceeding their own expectations provided they had the will to do so and had a path set out to achieve that.
The basic formula for success on cram down is the same as for other MBA advocacy priorities--namely, make a strong policy argument, deploy your political resources to create awareness and directly lobby policymakers.
Cram was so inept, so out of his depth, that if he hadn't looked so pleased with himself, I might even have felt sorry for him.
Neither Cram nor sidekick Rhona Martin were on the edge of their seats as confirmed by an unforgiving BBC camera which swung their way just as he said it, revealing the pair in full recline mode and showing no sign of inching forward towards the precipice that the ex-middle distance man had alluded to.