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a term introduced in 19th-century Catholic historiography by the German scholar J. Hergenróther and others to denote the unique relationship between the imperial authority and the church in the Byzantine Empire: the head of the secular power—the emperor (caesar)—was in fact head of the church (pope) as well. The term is occasionally encountered in modern historical works as well, and not only in reference to Byzantium.

Caesaropapism does not describe the true relations between the Byzantine emperors and the church. In fact, the Byzantine Church was more dependent economically on the state than the Catholic Church; its rights were not formally defined, appointment of the patriarch remained the prerogative of the emperor, and the Byzantine clergy played a much smaller role in state administration. However, the relationship did vary. In certain periods the patriarchs exerted great influence on the state machinery, and attempts by the emperors to impose their will on the church were often unsuccessful: the emperors could not assume the right of appointing bishops and metropolitans, could not enforce Iconoclasm, and did not achieve union with the papacy. The emperors, with the exception of Justinian I and Manuel I Comnenus, did not even claim that the state held ideological authority over the church.


References in periodicals archive ?
In other words, behind the caesaropapism of the post-Constantinian church, behind the Crusades, behind the Inquisition and the witch-burnings, behind all the wars of religion, behind the great World Wars of the 20th century (waged largely by nominally Christian nations), behind much of the economic, military, and cultural imperialism that characterizes the current pax Americana, to say nothing of the warring factions of the Middle East--behind these and countless other massive deviations from good morality, and inseparably connected with these deviations, lie false and mistaken ideas about God.
However, Ignatius Loyola's concept of mission was quite new in its idea of making Jesuits available to do the work of the papacy; it was an option that was not subject to ecclesiastical or royal power; Ignatius's vision challenged the Caesaropapism of the medieval world, the Iberian reconquista, and the Spanish Inquisition.