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a suborder of planktonic invertebrate animals of the order Copepoda. Some zoologists consider Calanoida an independent order.
Calanoida are from 0.5 to 14 mm in size. The head is fused with the first thoracic segment, forming the cephalothorax, on which there are a nauplius eye and five pairs of appendages (antennae I and II, mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae). The thorax bears maxillipeds and five or four pairs of swimming legs. Respiration is effected by the entire body surface. The female deposits eggs in the water or carries them in an egg sac until giving birth. Calanoida feed on phytoplankton (only a few are predators) and are themselves the principal food of fish fry, plankton-feeding fish (such as herring, anchovies, sardines, and Pacific saury) and whalebone whales. More than 2, 000 species are known, belonging to 200 genera united in 30 families. They are widely distributed in marine and fresh bodies of water and are very numerous. (In the surface waters of the ocean there are up to tens of thousands of individuals per cubic meter.) The majority of marine Calanoida are characterized by luminescence. A typical representative of Calanoida is Calanus finmar-chicus.
REFERENCESZhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 2. Moscow, 1968. Pages 406-10.
Brodskii, K. A. Veslonogie rachki Calanoida DaVnevostochnykh morei SSSR i Poliarnogo basseina. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
K. A. BRODSKII