Calanoida


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Calanoida

[‚kal·ə′nȯid·ə]
(invertebrate zoology)
A suborder of the crustacean order Copepoda, including the larger and more abundant of the pelagic species.

Calanoida

 

a suborder of planktonic invertebrate animals of the order Copepoda. Some zoologists consider Calanoida an independent order.

Calanoida are from 0.5 to 14 mm in size. The head is fused with the first thoracic segment, forming the cephalothorax, on which there are a nauplius eye and five pairs of appendages (antennae I and II, mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae). The thorax bears maxillipeds and five or four pairs of swimming legs. Respiration is effected by the entire body surface. The female deposits eggs in the water or carries them in an egg sac until giving birth. Calanoida feed on phytoplankton (only a few are predators) and are themselves the principal food of fish fry, plankton-feeding fish (such as herring, anchovies, sardines, and Pacific saury) and whalebone whales. More than 2, 000 species are known, belonging to 200 genera united in 30 families. They are widely distributed in marine and fresh bodies of water and are very numerous. (In the surface waters of the ocean there are up to tens of thousands of individuals per cubic meter.) The majority of marine Calanoida are characterized by luminescence. A typical representative of Calanoida is Calanus finmar-chicus.

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 2. Moscow, 1968. Pages 406-10.
Brodskii, K. A. Veslonogie rachki Calanoida DaVnevostochnykh morei SSSR i Poliarnogo basseina. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.

K. A. BRODSKII

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References in periodicals archive ?
Overlooked cryptic endemism in copepods: systematics and natural history of the calanoid subgenus Occidodiaptomus Borutzky 1991 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae).
Other literature suggests that reduction in fish communities results in moderate numbers of damselfly and caddisfly larvae the year following treatment (Claffey and Ruck 1967) and corresponding increases in calanoida copepod and cladocerans (Ling 2002).
Taxonomic arrangement and nomenclature follows Dussart and Defaye (2002, 2006) for Calanoida
Zooplankton were counted using a 1 ml Sedgwrick-Rafter cell and identified based on these zooplankton groups: Calanoida, Cyclopodia, Bosminidae, Daphniidae, Leptodoridae, Acariformes, Certopogonidae, Chironomidae, Ostracoda, and Keratella (Rotifera).
RRZ Cladocera 13% Rotifera 42% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 9% Nauplii 29% RRTZ Cladocera 20% Rotifera 30% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 10% Nauplii 33% MLZ Cladocera 17% Rotifera 21% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 15% Nauplii 40% WRTZ Cladocera 14% Rotifera 37% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 9% Nauplii 33% WRZ Cladocera 10% Rotifera 49% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 6% Nauplii 28% Note: Table made from pie chart Figure 7.
Trichotria tetractis copepod nauplii Wigrella depressa RRZ Cladocera 13% Rotifera 42% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 9% Nauplii 29% RRTZ Cladocera 20% Rotifera 30% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 10% Nauplii 33% MLZ Cladocera 17% Rotifera 21% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 15% Nauplii 40% WRTZ Cladocera 14% Rotifera 37% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 9% Nauplii 33% WRZ Cladocera 10% Rotifera 49% Calanoida 7% Cyclopoida 6% Nauplii 28% Figure 4.