During the Caledonian Orogeny the Baltica continent collided with Avalonia in the latest Ordovician and with Laurentia in the Wenlock.
The culminating Caledonian Orogeny with rising land areas undoubtedly intensified erosion and boosted influx of the terrigenous component into the basin.
His topics are the construction of Baltica--proto-Europe, the Lower Paleozoic growth of proto-Europe, the Caledonian orogeny
, the expansion of Europe in the Upper Paleozoic, the Hercynian orogenic cycle, Europe in Mesozoic to mid-Cenozoic time, the Alpine orogeny, and Neogene to Quaternary Europe.
This circumstance must be seriously considered in connection with the later Caledonian Orogeny which was a long mountain-building process that stretched from Tremadoc to Early Devonian [2,5].
Perhaps the most important practical results of the Caledonian orogeny are massive mature and multi-folded black alum shale deposits in Jamtland, Sweden and the possible allochton from the same or similar source at Sillamae, Estonia.
In contrast to Norway, where Caledonian orogeny caused significant heating to 150-200[degrees]C of the Lower Cambrian, the Lontova formation clay and silt temperature has never exceeded 35[degrees]C in Estonia .
Furthermore, he believed that the Silurian in the Lugicum is folded by Caledonian orogeny, while Devonian Rheinisch development is significant in the Silesicum, which was folded and metamorphosed by the Variscan orogeny.
In contrast, the opinion of Bederke (1925, 1929) was that the WSS and ESS had been initially folded together and metamorphosed by the Caledonian orogeny, while the East Sudetic System was subsequently affected by the Variscan orogeny.
In the North Atlantic region, the Caledonian Orogeny embraces Cambrian to Devonian tectonic and magmatic events associated with the development and subsequent closure of those parts of the Iapetus Ocean which were situated between Laurentia to the northwest and Baltica and Avalonia to the southeast and east (McKerrow et al.
u-Pb geochronology of deformed metagranites in central Sutherland, Scotland: evidence for widespread late Silurian metamorphism and ductile deformation of the Moine Supergroup during the Caledonian orogeny.
The appearance and consistent occurrence of 1300-900 Ma zircon grains in the Lower Cambrian and younger sandstones probably reflect the uplift-exposure of the Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian orogen due to the Caledonian orogeny
(Cambrian-Devonian, ca 500-400 Ma) along the northwestern margin of Baltica (e.