Came a beautiful fall day, warm and languid, palpitant with the hush of the changing season, a California Indian
summer day, with hazy sun and wandering wisps of breeze that did not stir the slumber of the air.
The last Mariposa lily vanished from the burnt grasses as the California Indian
summer dreamed itself out in purple mists on the windless air.
It is answered: "Father Junipero Serra left behind a life of academic prestige and renown to take on a life of hardship, sacrifice and toil in order to become an advocate and spiritual minister to the Native California Indians
Journalist Castillo challenges the popular notion that peaceful exchanges occurred between the Franciscan monks and California Indians
, showing instead how the Spanish occupation of California lured Indians into the missions where they faced forced labor and physical punishment.
In fact, the mission friars enslaved the California Indians
and treated them with deliberate cruelty.
There are quite a few California Indians
who think he shouldn't be a saint," Vera Rocha, chairwoman of the organized Southern California Indians
, Gabrielano Band, told the Los Angeles Times back then.
These two features of California Indian
life have meant reduced economic activity and options for California Indians
In the first chapter, "Settling into the City: American Indian Migration and Urbanization, 1900-1945," Rosenthal tells the story of the migration of American Indians in the Southwest and California Indians
to urban areas and places where labor was needed before World War II.
Through "Indigenizing California History," a book in progress, Bauer wants "to insert California Indians
into the intellectual history of the United States in the early 20th century.
Here, she offers something for everyone: a personal and family memoir for general readers, a tribal history of California Indians
for students and scholars, and poems for fans of her poetry.
As this table indicates, Baja California Indians
played a stronger role during the early years at Mission San Gabriel, as did gente de razon godparents, but by 1800, local Indians sponsored themselves for baptism in significant numbers, reflecting the emergence of new indigenous Catholic communities.
As historians such as James Rawls, Albert Hurtado, and Tomas Almaguer have documented, the dehumanization of California Indians
was an integral component of Euro-American justification for their displacement, enslavement, and extermination in the process of exploiting the region's economic potential.