Umar

(redirected from Caliph Omar)
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Umar

(o͞omär`) or

Omar

(ō`mär), c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
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 as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power. The Muslim generals pushed conquests far and wide—into Syria, Egypt, and the Persian Empire. Umar also laid the administrative base of the empire, creating the office of kadi and establishing fixed taxes. He reopened the canals of Mesopotamia and the waterway from the Nile to the Red Sea. Umar was assassinated by a foreign slave. He had appointed a group to select his successor, and the choice fell on UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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.

Omar

, Umar
died 644 ad, the second caliph of Islam (634--44). During his reign Islamic armies conquered Syria and Mesopotamia: murdered
References in classic literature ?
Restored by order of the Caliph Omar, it was definitely destroyed in 761 or 762 by Caliph Al-Mansor, who wished to prevent the arrival of provisions to Mohammed-ben-Abdallah, who had revolted against him.
Al-Otaibi's book deals with the method of Caliph Omar bin Al-Khattab in dealing with factors affecting internal security and facing family problems.
The Patriarchate in Jerusalem has had a strong relationship with the Arab and Islamic world ever since the Arab Caliph Omar Ibn Al Khattab conquered Jerusalem in 636, when he received the keys of the Holy City from Patriarch Sephronius of Jerusalem because the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius had already left the city for Constantinople," Patriarch Theophilos said.
State authorities are simple public servants; they just receive the determined amount of salaries; the figures they need to take as models include the Prophet Muhammad and Caliph Omar.
The Patriarch added that today's meeting was a confirmation of the deep-rooted relationship between Muslims and Christians religiously, culturally and socially, which dates back to the era of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab and Patriarch Sophronius, and has been strengthened now, thanks to the efforts of His Majesty the King.
He cited the behavior of the seventh century Caliph Omar, who did not harm the Christians of Jerusalem when he seized the city.
Amr ibn Al-As, the Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 AD, by order of Caliph Omar, was the first Arab conqueror of Egypt.
The minaret is associated with Aden Mosque that was built during the time of Caliph Omar Bin Abdulaziz.
The minaret of this mosque, which was build by Caliph Omar bin al-Khattab, is the first in the whole of the Levant, and has been destroyed by the soldiers of the tyrant," it added, referring to President Assad.
By applying this, Egypt will blossom and turn into the state it was under Caliph Omar Ibn El-Khattab," he added.
The Caliph Omar Abd al-Azziz, who ruled between 717 and 720, codified the rules that were to apply to the dhimmis.
There are other examples of religious tolerance, especially in Istanbul and Jerusalem, where the Caliph Omar once refused to pray inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre lest his fellow believers turn this all-important church, which is believed to house the tomb of Jesus, into a mosque.