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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

References in periodicals archive ?
This colossal damage to local culture was meant to prevent education and learning, to maintain a distance between the caliphate and what these areas were like before.
8220;We need a deeper understanding and investigation of these factors in order to have a better understanding of these issues relating to jihadists and Caliphate groups that we're encountering.
Caliphates gave the illusion of unity under the Islamic tent, but such unity was largely imaginary.
After Talha and Zubayr apostasy, Muawiyah declared in a letter to A1 Zubair to be the caliphate of Damascus after him, and then Talha, but this is under the condition of oppression and occupation of Iraq.
The aACAyAbbasid Caliphate in Equilibrium: The Caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A.
Tunisia's secularists said their fears about an Islamist takeover were being realized on Tuesday after Jbeili, whose moderate Islamist party won last month's election, invoked the revival of a caliphate, or Islamic state.
They know that Iraqis have rejected Al-Qaeda, there will never be a caliphate in Iraq; the struggle for democracy now is the heart of our fight against terrorism and it is a struggle Iraqi people are winning," General Ray Odierno told a ceremony in one of Saddam Hussein s old palaces in Baghdad.
Pro-IS sites are circulating images incorporating Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Morocco, Somalia and Nigeria into an expanding caliphate.
In August, after his fighters captured the town of Gwoza in Borno, he released a video declaring that the area was "now part of the Islamic Caliphate.
The use of the term caliphate in Arab politics is highly sensitive because it is a concept promoted by groups at the radical end of the Islamist spectrum, such as Hizbut-Tahrir, which is banned in many countries.
2 tow, Hamadi Jebali, telling supporters: "We are in the sixth caliphate, God willing.
Footage posted on the Internet showed Hamadi Jbeli, the secretary-general of the Ennahda party, telling supporters that "We are in the sixth caliphate, God willing.