are macrocyclic oligomers synthesized from the condensation of phenol and formaldehyde in basic environment .
Specifically, DAlessio examined the suitability of calixarenes
functionalised with tetrazoles as potential new ligands for gallium-68 in PET cancer imaging and lutetium-177, which is used in cancer therapeutics.
Consequently due to the convenient one pot synthesis from cheap raw materials and regenerable nature of their impended resins; the calixarenes
a class of synthetic macrocyclic oligomers possessing cup like shape having defined upper and lower rims with central annulus have been widely used in adsorption processes.
Synthesis of macromolecular structures such as dendrimers, calixarenes
, and functionalized rotaxanes have been achieved with great success using this chemistry.
Hofs group has been working on an alternative approach based on calixarenes
Topics include extracting radioactive elements by calixarenes
, the simultaneous removal of radionuclides by extractant mixtures, the radiolysis of solvents used in nuclear fuel reprocessing, automating extraction chromagraphic and ion-exchange separations for radiochemical analysis and monitoring, and neoteric solvents as the basis for alternative approaches to separating actinides and fission products.
Examples include calixarenes
, porphyrins, and macrocyclic polypyridine (17) derivatives.
Topics covered include ligand effects in homogeneous catalysis and rational catalyst design, P-stereogenic ligands, calixarenes
, supramolecular approaches, solid phase synthesis, biological approaches, and solubility and separation.
To mimic the active site, macrocyclic compounds such as cyclodextrins , crown ether , cyclophanes and calixarenes
, each having an inclusion cavity as a basic skeleton of potent artificial monooxygenase, were usually employed.
Among the synthetic materials, calixarenes
are enthralling group of third generation macromolecular compounds obtained from the condensational product of phenol-HCHO precursors which have been widely employed as the selective trapping agents for ionic species [26, 27].
Specific topics include artificial photochemical devices and machines, rotaxanes as ligands for molecular machines and metal-organic frameworks, strategic anion templation for the assembly of interlocked structures, synthetic nanotubes from calixarenes
, supramolecular architecture based on organometallic half-sandwich complexes, endochemistry of self-assembled hollow spherical cages, polynuclear coordination stages, from structure to function for polyoxometalate nanocapsules, nanocapsules assembled by the hydrophobic effect, opportunities in nanotechnology via organic solid-state reactivity, and organic nanocapsules.
This work is focused on water-soluble organic cage compounds as hosts, including cyclodextrins, cucurbituril, and calixarenes