Callias


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Callias

(kăl`ēəs), fl. 449 B.C., Athenian statesman; he was related to Cimon and also to Aristides. He distinguished himself at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) and was a three-time winner of the Olympic chariot races. Callias was sent to Susa to negotiate for peace c.449 B.C. The result of his work was an agreement usually called the Peace of Callias (or Treaty of Callias); by it Artaxerxes IArtaxerxes I
, d. 425 B.C., king of ancient Persia (464–425 B.C.), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis. Artaxerxes is the Greek form of "Ardashir the Persian." He succeeded his father, Xerxes I, in whose assassination he had no part.
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 agreed to respect the independence of the Delian League and its members and to send no warships into Greek waters; in return Athens agreed not to interfere with Persian "influence" in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and Egypt. There is doubt that such a treaty was actually ever drawn up; however, peace did exist between Persia and the cities of Greece until the end of the century. According to ancient historians, when Callias returned to Athens he was fined 50 talents for betraying the city. Callias was also supposed to have been one of the negotiators of a treaty between Athens and Sparta (446–445 B.C.) that resulted in 30 years of peace.

Callias,

d. c.370 B.C., Athenian leader, one of the generals of the Peloponnesian War. In his old age Callias was one of the ambassadors sent to Sparta with Callistratus to negotiate a peace treaty in 371 B.C. The treaty was ineffective, and friction between EpaminondasEpaminondas
, d. 362 B.C., Greek general of Thebes. He was a pupil of Lysias the Pythagorean, but his early life is otherwise obscure. As the Theban delegate to the peace conference of 371 B.C. he refused to surrender his claim to represent all Boeotia.
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 of Thebes and Agesilaus IIAgesilaus II
, c.444–360 B.C., king of Sparta. After the death of Agis I (398? B.C.), he was brought to power by Lysander, whom he promptly ignored. After the Peloponnesian War the Greek cities in Asia Minor had not been ceded to Persia despite Sparta's promises, and in
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 of Sparta became acute. Callias was a rich man and his wealth was ridiculed by his contemporaries, including Aristophanes. His house is the scene of Xenophon's Symposium and Plato's Protagoras.
References in classic literature ?
There is at this time a Parian philosopher residing in Athens, of whom I have heard; and I came to hear of him in this way:--I came across a man who has spent a world of money on the Sophists, Callias, the son of Hipponicus, and knowing that he had sons, I asked him: 'Callias,' I said, 'if your two sons were foals or calves, there would be no difficulty in finding some one to put over them; we should hire a trainer of horses, or a farmer probably, who would improve and perfect them in their own proper virtue and excellence; but as they are human beings, whom are you thinking of placing over them?
The same characteristics, as well as Socrates' attitude of superiority, are mentioned by Ameipsias in the Konnos and Callias in the Captives, of which only fragments survive.
No art considers the particular, medicine for instance what is healthy for Socrates or Callias, but what is healthy for men of this or that kind (this is the matter that comes within the province of an art, whereas the particular is indefinite and cannot be known).
This is evident when we observe how The Orator of "Lazarus Pyott," a series of cases each assigned both a pro and a con speech, includes a great number of the Controversiae, but in a concentrated form, in a given case arranging select lines of several of Seneca's declaimers into two monologues; rather than bits and pieces of many different declaimers speaking as or for Cimon, we have in The Orator one speech on Cimon's behalf, his pro se defense, and another in the voice of the plaintiff, his aggrieved father-in-law Callias.
38) On this view of species, individuals like Socrates and Callias are parts of a more inclusive individual (the human species) rather than members of a wider class (the class of all humans).
Nine appendices cover in more detail various problems within this interaction, and Cawkwell offers detailed perspectives on the Persian army and navy and the so-called Peace of Callias, among other topics.
In Le Troisieme Sexe, Willy takes his readers on a sexual tour of Europe, on an exciting excursion to the gay subculture of Paris, and on a visit to the city's libraries and bookstores, where he finds the androgynous literature of Carco, Miomandre, and de Callias.
Nina de Callias introduced Chabrier to Edouard Manet who would become the greatest friend of his life.
31) The same is true of Autolycus, who in Xenophon's Symposium sits next to his father, leaning against him in the manner of a young child, as wealthy Callias seeks the father's approval for a pederastic relationship.
dc Callias, writing in L'Artiste, stated that "Manet .
27) DL 2 7 = 59A1 says two apparently contradictory things: that Anaxagoras was twenty years old at the time of Xerxes' invasion (= 480 BC), and that he started philosophizing in Athens at twenty in the year of (the eponymous archon) Callias (= 456).
Otherwise, the individual Callias could not be perceived at all, for there would be no way to pick out perceptually a bundle of sensations as forming one individual unless these sensations were already organized by the intellect into a gestalt.