Calligonum

Calligonum

 

a genus of branchy bushes of the buckwheat (Polygonaceae) family. The young shoots are green, jointed, and almost without leaves. They appear in a cluster from the axils of woody branches. The leaves are small, threadlike or needlelike, and free or grown together, with cones. They fall early. The blossoms are bisexual, with simple perianths and one to three (sometimes five) trumpets in the axils. The fruit is a nut with tunicate or leathery wings or setae forming a circle.

There are more than 150 varieties of Calligonum, found in sandy deserts and the steppes of western Siberia, Middle Asia, Central Asia, the Near East, and North Africa. In the USSR there are 125 species (according to other sources, 54), chiefly in Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. The most widely found species are Gürke (C. aphyllum) and rushes (C. junceum). They are used for soil retention, and their wood is used for fuel. The green shoots and fruits are eaten by camels and sheep.

REFERENCE

Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.

S. K. CHEREPANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of temperature on seed germination of seven Calligonum species.
Calligonum and Rumex differ from the usual pattern, have a complex reticulate, rather than fusiform-reticulate pattern, and Colligonum has a prominent fimbrial vein.
Soil microbe numbers were determined by plate-count techniques; -, not detected Dune age: 0 year 16 years Year: Control 1991 RSS (A) No Amorpha fruticosa, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia whaerocephala, Caragana korshinskii, Caragana microphylla, Calligonum arboresscens, H.
Grasses: Chrysopogon monatus, Chrysopogon aucheri, Themeda anathera, Bothriothloa pertusa, Aristida mutabilis, Cenchrus ciliaris, Digitaria nodos, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperarta cylindrical, Eleusine compressa, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum antidorale, Pennisetum orientate, Polvpogon monspeliensis, Cymobopogon jawarancusa, Eulatiopsis binata Desert Trees/Shrubs: Araria jacquemontii, Aracia rangelands nilotica, Acacia Senegal, Calligonum polygonoides, Euphorbia cadurifolia.
Species inhabiting the former Soviet parts of Central Asia add another 60-70 species to the coverage, the majority belonging to Calligonum.
The persistent vegetation of the sands is dominated by sparse shrubs of Haloxylon persicum, which is occasionally accompanied by Calligonum comosum and Haloxylon salicornicum.
In Calligonum comosum, which inhabits sandy desert areas of West Turanian-Arabian and Saharo-Arabian regions, germination at 20 [degrees] C after 7 days of wetting was low in light (15%) and high in dark (71%).