If we make another comparison between Callisthenes
and Cleitophon, we can find a remarkably similar passage, with a young man impressing an older general with his control of horses.
Eros strongly influences not only the protagonists, but also minor characters such as Callisthenes
, Charmides, Chaereas, Melite and Thersander.
is considered the author of version "A"; Julius Valerius translated it into Latin and the present form of the version goes back to the 3d century C.
Alexander had on his staff several Greek historians including Callisthenes
, Cleitarchos and Onesicritos, whose works have long been lost to posterity - but significantly those particular historians' works were sometimes used as sources by the very authors who several centuries later described the gardens in works that have survived to this day.
and they castigated the memory of Callisthenes
for his flattery of the king and his invention of miracles which made him appear superhuman.
These versions, from the first century BC and later, ultimately rely on sources contemporary and near-contemporary to Alexander himself (late fourth / early third century BC), such as Callisthenes
, used by Aristobulus and Ptolemy, in their turn the principal sources of Arrian; and Onesicritus and Nearchus, used by Cleitarchus, who again served as source for the so-called 'vulgate' authors, Diodorus, Curtius and Trogus / Justin.
In his Life of Aristotle, Diogenes Laertius tells us how Aristotle had learned that his nephew Callisthenes
had been speaking too freely to Alexander, and how he had quoted to him two lines from Homer's Iliad, in which Thetis, mother of Achilles, had warned him of the dangers attaching to hasty speech:
He put the philosopher Callisthenes
to death for his seeming philosophical, indeed mutinous, stubbornness; but the chief thing he ever was heard to wish for was that Homer had been alive.
The organization (with numbers of species in parentheses for each genus, and names of families and tribes in bold font) is: Trachypachidae: Systolosomatini: Systolosoma (2), Trachypachini: Trachypachus (3); Carabidae: Pelophilini: Pelophila (2), Nebriini: Leistus (4), Nebria (53), Nipponebria (2), Notiokasiini: Notiokasis (1), Opisthiini: Opisthius (1), Notiophilini: Notiophilus (18), Cicindini: Cicindis (1), Omophronini: Omophron (17), Loricerini: Loricera (5), Carabini: Callisthenes
(24), Calopachys (4), Calosoma (55), Carabus (17), Ceroglossus (8), Cychrini: Cychrus (2), Scaphinotus (55), Sphaeroderus (5): Collyridini, Ctenosoma (109), for a total of 388 species.
For example, the historian Callisthenes
, who joined Alexander's campaign, and who may have cultivated its Homeric allusions, notes that Alexander defeated the Persians in the battle of Granicus in the same month that Troy had fallen.
Chalcidius (4th century AD) wrote that Alcmaeon (followed by Callisthenes
, a pupil of Aristotle, and Herophilus) first dissected the eye, and described the optic nerve and the 4 tunics comprising the walls of the eyeball.
It is assumed on good grounds that they were drawing on memoirs left by Alexander's generals and on material from Callisthenes
(370-327 BCE), Alexander's own historian 'embedded' with his army (until he annoyed his commander-in-chief, who is said to have murdered him).