de toute facon, c'est difficile [pour les collaborateurs du Sud] d'avoir les moyens de faire l'analyse parce qu'ils ne sont pas toujours au meme plan de competences que les chercheurs du Nord, parce qu'ils n'ont pas ete formes de maniere aussi poussee et que, finalement, on a adopte un plan de travail qui est plutot calque
sur les savoir-faire developpes par les chercheurs du Nord [.
Sensible a la disparition des modes de vie traditionnels, au pillage des richesses ethnologiques, culturelles et artistiques, ainsi qu'a la desintegration des communautes face a un nouveau mode de vie calque
sur le mirage occidental, l'artiste se comporte en garant de la culture africaine et de sa conservation sur le continent noir.
However, Eca could have arrived at Quartelmar by translating the near homophone quarter and main in the sense of sea, producing a calque
, a less 'foreign' surname for the benefit of the Portuguese reader.
Moreover, in the transitional zone between the mesolect and the acrolect of the continuum, there are lexico-grammatical features such as conjunctions and subordinators which belong to the acrolect (the Standard English variety) as well as the mesolect, where they are used to calque
a number of creole functions, that is, functions typical of registers of conversational discourse due to the fact that English-based Creoles occur predominantly in spoken discourse.
Briefly, Vinay and Darbelnet's (1995) categories of literal translation (which I have modified to account for obligatory and optional word order changes), transposition (obligatory and optional), modulation (fixed and free), equivalence and adaptation are used as subcategories of substitution in Delabastita (1993); borrowing and calque
are used as subcategories of Delabastita's (1993) repetition; compensation is further subdivided into compensation by footnoting and compensation by splitting (Hervey & Higgins in Harvey 1995: 74); and the categories of addition and deletion remain unchanged.
D'autre part, l'idealisation des vacances et du temps libre se jumele a la crainte de la vacuite et a la confection d'un emploi du temps calque
a l'image du rythme organise de la vie urbaine.
Zukofsky is using an English poet's Latinate calque
on a late Greek name for a poetry collection to point to the fact that the Roman dramatic poem he's adapting is itself an adaptation from Hellenistic Greek.
Dame una quebrada, which is a "semantic transfer" or calque
derived from "Give me a break," is a phrase that my Chicano buddies and I have been using for at least forty years.
Philologically, this occurrence, by which Greek pempte ousia was translated, element by element, into Latin quinta essentia, is known as a loan translation, or calque
, a word derived from French calque
'an imitation or tracing,' insofar as one language is transposing the elements of another language into its own elements.
The matching efforts provided some insights into the meaning of occupational titles, the logic of missing records, and local practices in a bilingual society, such as ambiguities among printer, typographer, or compositor; the contemporary calque
of garde-magasin for storekeeper; as well as a degree of interchangeability that reflected "real" identities or nuances, terms such as grocer, innkeeper or tavernkeeper, policeman or constable, and carpenter or joiner.
Ut is the Hungarian for road, thus the translation is somewhat of a structural calque
of the original phrase, which contains the word alley.
En milieu urbain, la problematique en securite routiere est differente car elle se calque
sur les schemas de deplacement et donc sur la mobilite (Andrey 2000).