Calque

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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

V. V. RASKIN

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Now, we will analyse using of calques (loan translations) in the Dictionary, which mean expressions adopted by one language (Lithuanian, in our case) from another (English) in a more or less literally translated form (The New Oxford Dictionary of English 2001).
insertion), one can find a calque of the following kind, where next to nigga please one can f'md sentence-initial jol (English: yo):
TRA8 and TRA9 also show a similar amount of errors in the case of syntactic calques (CAS = seven).
Cuando era puertorriquena is an excessively faithful and difficult translation of the original, considering not only the world represented by When I Was Puerto Rican (the structure of the text), but also the frequency of calques from the English language, the excessive use of the gerund and of the impersonal "se," and the imprecise use of articles.
Zukofsky is using an English poet's Latinate calque on a late Greek name for a poetry collection to point to the fact that the Roman dramatic poem he's adapting is itself an adaptation from Hellenistic Greek.
The ancient Romans, as well as the Greeks, have provided English with a potpourri of picturesque calques.
L'autre dominante de la structure de la culture monostylistique etait l'allegorese ou, autrement dit, l'importance d'oeuvres qui, une fois canonisees, servaient de modeles, de calques a toute la production ulterieure (Gunther 1984 : v).
It is of interest that these Aramaic and Akkadian names are calques of each other.
In general these deal with syntactic calques and other departures from monolingual Spanish, such as Se murio de mi mi perrito 'my dog died' [= se me murio .
The influence of French on eighteenth-century literary Russian; semantic and phraseological calques.
However, regarding calques, some reasons will be adduced to explain their exclusion.