Calque

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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

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In sum, we have seen that, as opposed to a meaningless hodge-podge of English and Spanish, Spanglish is in fact the result of bilinguals' use of borrowings, calques, semantic extensions, nonce borrowings, and the skillful mixture of two grammars in cases of code-switching and code-mixing.
Extraction of anglicisms and calques produced in a specific historical period: 1930-1959.
fard a levres), phraseological calques after French, are not recorded by dictionaries, but they are used frequently (10).
The main approaches to translating foreign words and expressions into the native language based on foreignizing and domesticating strategies have been analysed, and their advantages and disadvantages, depending on the determined status of a particular language and the traditional attitudes of linguists and translators from a particular country to the use of borrowings, calques, translation changes and other translation techniques have been described.
insertion), one can find a calque of the following kind, where next to nigga please one can f'md sentence-initial jol (English: yo):
TRA8 and TRA9 also show a similar amount of errors in the case of syntactic calques (CAS = seven).
The classification below includes the following categories: calques, borrowings, cognates and copies (or instances of code-switching).
Problems of Latvian influence in Livonian were dealt with also in his book "Lahisukukielten muoto-oppia ja lainasuhteita" (Castrenianumin toimitteita 9, 1974), where Latvian calques and semantic borrowings and influences in the usage of the dative case in Livonian are studied.
Some of the key types are adapted borrowings (rentowanie, dwu-bedrumowy, superwajzorka, tajpowac), calques (maszyna do prania, brac zdjecie, zgubic wage), semantic modifications (afera in the sense of 'affair', standard Polish romans).
Identifying linguistic behaviors of LR include calques, implementation of specific loan words and translations, and restructured forms involving aspects of the AAE lexicon and morphosyntax that have no Standard English equivalents or have meanings very different from Standard English usage.
Some of these words are being naturalized by inflection and transliteration, others are being used as calques, while many of them find themselves in everyday use as foreign words, being eloquently integrated in spoken conversation, but having great difficulty in gaining approval from linguists when seen in written Albanian texts.