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Related to Calquing: loan translation

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.


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The results of the contrastive study have shown that almost all translations show higher counts than the experimental study with professional translators by De Rooze (2003), with an interesting correlation between calquing and typographic issues.
For example, one student of the control group wrote: Anch'io sono sempre verde di gelosia ("I too am also green with envy al ways"), showing the calquing of "green with envy" onto the formation of the Italian expression.
They express themselves largely through a process of "conceptual calquing," relying on the CS1 to direct their choice of L2 structures without being consciously aware of this.
13) Languages which belong to the Western cultural-civilisational spheres have diverse attitudes to calquing.
In languages with pronounced purist tendencies, outright lexical borrowing gives way to calquing.
He pays particular attention to the development of derivational types and points out some new deri vational types which are created in the process of calquing from German to Croatian.
Such use of language is the reader's first active signal that the events of the chapter, and the following story line, are inherently connected to, and even critical of, the first third of Beowulf; the calquing that Shippey describes is, in effect, the tool by which this signaling is achieved but the signaling is itself merely a tool for the criticism.
While Tolkien does spend significant efforts guiding the reader to this important revelation via his signaling calques, this calquing does not end with the guards' judgments of the fellowship, making it unlikely that its main purpose is the privileging of discretion over orders.
Suarez also notes calquing of native forms to supply an equivalent for a coordinating conjunction as with Tlapanec where a construction of the form `John came with Peter' gives way to `John with/and Peter came'.
The phenomenon of calquing and of semantic anglicisms in general is less conspicuous, at least from a morphological and graphemic point of view, but it has long drawn the attention or curiosity of researchers working in this field (Bookless, Pratt), especially those interested in the area of translation (Lorenzo, Santoyo).
But a closer look shows that the number of anglicisms exceeds that of translations only as far as semantic calquing is concerned.
Evidently, the use of Latin as a second language by Tripolitanian Phoenicians in the late Roman period made a considerable impact on the Punic dialect, resulting not merely in the borrowing of Latin words, but also in direct calquing of the kind, y = ea, 'this'.