Cameralism

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Cameralism

 

a special program of studies of administrative and economic disciplines taught in European universities in the Middle Ages and in the universities of Russia from the 1850’s. In Germany, for example, this program included economic, geographic, and other subjects. Cameralism received its name from the cameral managements established in the Middle Ages by princes, dukes, and kings with extensive business activities. The so-called cameral disciplines were taught at special university departments and special schools (cameral schools) for the training of bureaucrats and administrators for the affairs of the high feudal lords; disciplines taught included mainly mining, forestry, and agricultural sciences. Marx characterized cameralism as “a medley of smatterings, through whose purgatory the hopeful candidate for the German bureaucracy has to pass” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Sock, 2nd ed., vol. 23, p. 13).

References in periodicals archive ?
Within this discourse, "police" served as a referent, if not a synonym, for the regulatory instruments of continental cameralist regimes.
Medical police, George Rosen has shown in a monumental body of work on the topic, was at its core a cameralist concept aimed at insuring the state of sufficient size and strength.
By implication, a contrast is drawn between his vision of the scope and purpose of regulatory authority and the cameralist model making its way from the continent, though the text makes no explicit mention of this distinction.
Ideologically, argues Szabo, the Habsburg bureaucracy was split into three ideological camps: 1) the traditionalists, who opposed any fundamental changes in the social and political structure of the monarchy; 2) the cameralists (after cameralism, the central European variant of mercantilism), who believed that the strength of a state ultimately hinged on how effectively it could tax its subjects; and 3) the party of "enlightened absolutism," led by Kaunitz.
It took some time for lusty and sense-oriented alpine southerners to adopt the prudish Kadavergehorsam which was de rigeur in their much more structured new environment of cameralist Sozialdisziplinierung.
Similarly in the German states in Central Europe, cameralists relied on economic incentives to secure support for the government.
The Cameralists believed that the state was like a giant household, to be managed in the same way as its private counterpart.
Most of the small states employed Cameralists who had been trained in the Universities, and these were interested primarily in developing the local economy for export.
During the eighteenth century, German cameralists like Justi and Zincke adopted and developed many features of Becher's economic programme.
The same peculiar antipathy to luxury animated the cameralists in Germany in the next century.
It was that quirky, long-winded bunch of thinkers known as the cameralists who, according to Hull, first "conceived of civil society on its own terms, separate from government" and who also came to regard "sexual behavior as a social issue, not a political one.
Sexual images became more important and more frequent in the prevailing discourse on what full-blown civil society should look like (the cameralists and Aufklarer alike were convinced that while civil society was in the process of formation, it had not yet reached maturity).