Camille Pissarro

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Pissarro, Camille

(kämē`yə pēsärō`), 1830–1903, French impressionist painter, b. St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. In Paris from 1855, he came under the influence of Corot and the Barbizon school. Later he allied himself with the impressionists, and was represented in all of the eight impressionist exhibitions (1874–1886). In 1884 he experimented with the theories of color devised by SeuratSeurat, Georges
, 1859–91, French neoimpressionist painter. He devised the pointillist technique of painting in tiny dots of pure color. His method, called divisionism, was a systematic refinement of the broken color of the impressionists.
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. Abandoning divisionism in the 1890s, he reverted to a freer, more vital interpretation of nature. It was not until then that his works began to be popular. Pissarro's warmth and generosity made him an endearing figure to many French painters. He was especially beloved as teacher and friend to Gauguin, Cézanne, and Cassatt. His son Lucien was also his pupil. Pissarro's paintings are in many leading American collections, including Le Fond de l'Hermitage (Cleveland Mus. of Art) and Bather in the Woods (Metropolitan Mus.).

Bibliography

See his works ed. by J. Rewald (1963); his Letters to his Son Lucien ed. by J. Rewald (1943); W. S. Meadmore, Lucien Pissarro (1963).

Pissarro, Camille

 

Born July 10, 1831, on the island of St. Thomas, in the West Indies; died Nov. 12, 1903, in Paris. French painter, one of the founders of impressionism.

Pissarro, who studied at the Académie Suisse in Paris from 1855 to 1861, was influenced by J. Constable, C. Corot, and J. F. Millet. Painting such modest subjects as rural landscapes and scenes of suburbs and boulevards, Pissarro revealed the charm and poetry of everyday objects and unveiled the inner aesthetic and spiritual qualities of what at first glance seem to be ordinary events in nature and in the life of man (Diligence à Louvesiennes, 1870; Museum of Impressionism, Paris). With a special subtlety, the artist masterfully rendered the transparency and moistness of air and the impression of rain that has just fallen or is approaching. At the same time, Pissarro preferred a more finished and more structured composition than most impressionists. He also gave more volume and definition to his forms. These features are evident in the works Plowed Earth (1874, A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow) and Boulevard Montmartre (1897, Hermitage, Leningrad).

In the late 1880’s, Pissarro became influenced by neo-impressionism. He produced drawings, watercolors, etchings, and lithographs. Playing a leading role in the impressionist movement, Pissarro exerted a profound moral and artistic influence on his fellow impressionists and on artists of the younger generation. Politically, he was close to the left-wing movement.

REFERENCES

Iudenich, I. V. Peizazhi Pissarro v Ermitazhe. Leningrad, 1963.
Kamil’ Pissarro: Pis’ma, kritika, vospominaniia sovremennikov. Moscow, 1974. [Translated from French. Introductory article, compilation and notes by K. G. Bogemskaia.]
Pissarro, L. R., and L. Venturi. Camille Pissarro, son art, son oeuvre, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1940.
Rewald, J. Camille Pissarro. New York, 1963.

V. A. KALMYKOV

References in classic literature ?
Then to admit no one except Major Bartolomeo Cavalcanti and his son.
You hear -- Major Bartolomeo Cavalcanti -- a man who ranks amongst the most ancient nobility of Italy, whose name Dante has celebrated in the tenth canto of `The Inferno,' you remember it, do you not?
This Major Cavalcanti is an old friend of yours, then?
This good Major Cavalcanti is come to take a second view of Paris, which he only saw in passing through in the time of the Empire, when he was on his way to Moscow.
Camille Pisarro, el comentarista social mas importante de su epoca, tuvo que huir de Francia.
There's a run-of-the-mill Gilbert Smart portrait of George Washington here, a saccharin Berthe Morisot girl-and-her-dog there, a very free Camille Pisarro cityscape around the corner, and a perfectly dreadful picture of dancers by Edgar Degas in between.
Como no paso el riguroso examen de admision a la Escuela de Bellas Artes, volvio a la Academia Suiza --refugio de otros rechazados por las instituciones de ensenanza tradicionales-- y ahi conocio a futuros grandes artistas de su generacion como Camille Pisarro (1830-1903), Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Alfred Sisley (1839-1899) y Edouard Manet (1832-1883).
Aunque Berthe Morisot fue admitida en el Salon de 1872 y algunos de sus cuadros, como La cuna (1872), fueron disputados por los coleccionistas, la pintora abandono la Academia un par de anos despues, cuando sus colegas Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pisarro, Pierre Augusto Renoir, Alfred Sisley --todos amigos o discipulos de Manet-- formaron una camarilla a la que denominaron jocosamente "los impresionistas" y decidieron exponer en el Salon de Nadar, alternativo al engolado de la Academia.
En las postrimerias del siglo pasado viajo a Paris, donde conocio a los impresionistas Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir y Camille Pisarro.
Despues de ver esta serie de cuadros, el impresionista y puntillista franco-antillano Camille Pisarro, califico a Sisley de "maestro comparable a los mas grandes, autor de autenticas obras de arte por su amplitud y belleza".