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Golgi, Camillo(kämēl`lō gôl`jē), 1844–1926, Italian physician, noted as a neurologist and histologist. He shared with Ramón y Cajal the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on the structure of the nervous system. He introduced (c.1870) a method of staining nerve tissue with silver nitrate that he used (1883) to demonstrate certain nerve cells (Golgi cells) in the central nervous system. He observed (1909) the Golgi apparatus, a part of the cytoplasm distinguishable by special staining and known as the Golgi bodies when in the form of separate particles. He recognized that the three types of malaria are caused by different protozoan organisms. Golgi taught at the Univ. of Pavia from 1875.
Born July 7. 1844, in Cortona; died Jan. 21, 1926, in Pavia. Italian histologist: named professor at the University of Pavia in 1875.
Golgi developed the chrome-silver method of preparing specimens of nerve tissue for the microscope (1873). which made it possible to see the silhouetted images of neurons with all of their processes, and thus to study and classify all of the neuronal forms of the cerebral cortex. This advance in turn opened the way for solution to the problem of the relationship between structure and function. In modern neurohistology a Golgi cell of type 1 is distinguished by a long axon that extends beyond the neural center in which the cell is located, and a Golgi cell of type 2 by a short axon that branches and ends in the same part of the gray matter in which the body of the cell is located. Golgi also described the special intracellular organelle now known as the Golgi apparatus. Golgi received the Nobel Prize in 1906, which he shared with Ramón y Cajal.
WORKSSulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali dei sistema nervoso. Milan. 1885.
Untersuchungen über den feineren Bau des centralen und peripherischen Nervensystems: Text und Atlas. Jena, 1894.
Opera omnia, vols. 1–3. Milan. 1903.