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Related to Campanulaceae: Commelinaceae, Geraniaceae, Dioscoreaceae
(bellflowers), a family of dicotyledonous plants. They are herbs, subshrubs, and sometimes small shrubs and low trees. Many contain a milky juice. The flowers are bisexual tetracyclic, primarily five-lobed, and regular. Some species, predominantly those of the subfamily Lobelinae (often classified as a special family), have irregular flowers. The anthers are generally conglutinate in the flower bud or grow together in a tube around the style (in most Lobelinae). The fruit is a capsule or, sometimes, a berry. There are approximately 70 genera (about 2,000 species), distributed primarily in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and also in the tropic and temperate regions of the southern hemisphere. In the USSR there are more than 225 species, making up 20 genera; among them are several endemic or almost endemic genera; for example, Ostrowskia and Sergia (Middle Asia) and Astrocodon (Far East). Species of the genera Campanula and Lobelia are particularly well known.