Campanulaceae


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Related to Campanulaceae: Commelinaceae, Geraniaceae, Dioscoreaceae

Campanulaceae

[kam‚pan·yə′lās·ē‚ē]
(botany)
A family of dicotyledonous plants in the order Campanulales characterized by a style without an indusium but with well-developed collecting hairs below the stigmas, and by a well-developed latex system.

Campanulaceae

 

(bellflowers), a family of dicotyledonous plants. They are herbs, subshrubs, and sometimes small shrubs and low trees. Many contain a milky juice. The flowers are bisexual tetracyclic, primarily five-lobed, and regular. Some species, predominantly those of the subfamily Lobelinae (often classified as a special family), have irregular flowers. The anthers are generally conglutinate in the flower bud or grow together in a tube around the style (in most Lobelinae). The fruit is a capsule or, sometimes, a berry. There are approximately 70 genera (about 2,000 species), distributed primarily in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and also in the tropic and temperate regions of the southern hemisphere. In the USSR there are more than 225 species, making up 20 genera; among them are several endemic or almost endemic genera; for example, Ostrowskia and Sergia (Middle Asia) and Astrocodon (Far East). Species of the genera Campanula and Lobelia are particularly well known.

REFERENCE

Fedorov, A. A. “Kolokol’chikovye.” In Flora SSSR, vol. 24. Moscow-Leningrad, 1957.
References in periodicals archive ?
Regulated pollen issue in Isotoma, Campanulaceae, and evolution of secondary pollen presentation.
Motschulsky (1860) Family Campanulaceae Tall bellflower (Campanula Vaurie (1948); Wildermuth & americana) Gates (1920) Family Fabaceae Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Ellsbury & Baker (1988); Folsom (1909); Lintner (1881); Vaurie (1948); Wildermuth & Gates (1920) White sweet clover (Melilotus alba) Vaurie (1948) Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus Vaurie (1948) officinalis) Bur clover (Melilotus hispida) Vaurie (1948) Crimson clover (Trifolium Baker & Ellsbury (1989); incarnatum) Ellsbury & Baker (1988); Ellsbury (1990); Pemberton et al.
Higher level phylogeny and evolutionary trends in Campanulaceae subfam.
The difference has been found to correlate with plant families or subfamilies with Orchidaceae, Campanulaceae, Cruciferae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Geraniaceae and Ranunculaceae etc.
From an ecological and evolutionary point of view, Asteraceae (the sunflower family), Campanulaceae / Lobeliaceae (the bell-flower family) and Apocynaceae / Asclepiadaceae (the milkweed family) have some of the most specialized pollen presentation mechanisms in the plant kingdom.
Bremer and Gustafsson (1997) proposed a Cretaceous origin for the sunflower alliance--the monophyletic group made up by Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, and ten smaller families--with the ancestor occurring in East Gondwana, i.