Campbell

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Campbell,

city (1990 pop. 36,048), Santa Clara co., W Calif., in the fertile Santa Clara valley; founded 1885, inc. 1952. The city's economy, formerly tied to fruit and vegetable processing, is now based on the computer industry.

Campbell

(kăm`bəl), Scottish noble family, the head of which is the duke of Argyll. The Campbells of Lochow (Lochawe) rose to power in W Scotland in the later Middle Ages. In 1445, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow (d. 1453) received the title of Baron Campbell, and his grandson Colin Campbell (d. 1493), 2d Baron Campbell, was created 1st earl of Argyll in 1457. In the succeeding century the earls of Argyll played an ever more prominent role in Scottish affairs. Archibald Campbell (d. 1558), 4th earl of Argyll, became one of the leading Protestant lords of the congregation. Even more important, however, was his son Archibald Campbell, 5th earl of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 5th earl of,
1530–73, Scottish statesman. He and Lord James Stuart (later earl of Murray) became followers of John Knox in 1556 and led the troops of the Scottish Protestants, the lords
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, also a lord of the congregation, who was deeply involved in the upheavals of the reign of Mary Queen of Scots. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Colin Campbell (d. 1584), 6th earl of Argyll, who was in turn succeeded by his son Archibald Campbell (1575–1638), 7th earl of Argyll. The 7th earl became a Roman Catholic and in 1619 surrendered management of his estates to his son Archibald Campbell, 8th earl and 1st marquess of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of and 1st marquess of,
1607–61, Scottish statesman.
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. The 8th earl and his son Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of,
1629?–1685, Scottish nobleman; son of the 8th earl. An ardent and active royalist and a Protestant, he opposed extreme measures against the Covenanters, thereby incurring
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, were the most powerful Presbyterian nobles in Scotland during the tumultuous events of the 17th cent.; both were executed for treason. Archibald Campbell, the 10th earl, finally managed to regain the family estates and was created (1701) 1st duke of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 1st duke of
, d. 1703, Scottish nobleman; eldest son of the 9th earl of Argyll. Having unsuccessfully sought favor with James II in order to recover the estates forfeited by his father, he
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. He and, more especially, his kinsman John Campbell, 1st earl of BreadalbaneBreadalbane, John Campbell, 1st earl of
, 1635?–1717, Scottish nobleman. He took part in the royalist rising of 1654 and helped George Monck to further the restoration (1660) of Charles II.
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, have been blamed (possibly unjustly) for the massacre (1692) of the MacDonalds of Glencoe by Campbell soldiers. John Campbell, 2d duke of ArgyllArgyll, John Campbell, 2d duke of,
1678–1743, Scottish general; son of the 1st duke, whom he succeeded in 1703. For his ardent support of the union of England and Scotland he was created (1705) earl of Greenwich.
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, and his brother Archibald Campbell, 3d duke of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 3d duke of,
1682–1761, Scottish nobleman; brother of the 2d duke. As lord high treasurer of Scotland (1705) and a commissioner for the union (1706), he helped negotiate the union (1707)
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, kept the family in the forefront of Scottish affairs. The 3d duke, however, died without legitimate issue, and the succession passed to a cadet branch of the family, the Campbells of Mamore. Of subsequent holders of the title the most prominent were George Douglas Campbell (1823–1900), 8th duke of Argyll, who held a series of cabinet positions, the most important as secretary of state for India in William Gladstone's first ministry (1868–74); and John Douglas Sutherland Campbell (1845–1914), 9th duke of Argyll, who married Princess Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria, and was governor-general of Canada (1878–83).

Campbell

1. Sir Colin, Baron Clyde. 1792--1863, British field marshal who relieved Lucknow for the second time (1857) and commanded in Oudh, suppressing the Indian Mutiny
2. Donald. 1921--67, English water speed record-holder
3. Sir Malcolm, father of Donald Campbell. 1885--1948, English racing driver and land speed record-holder
4. Mrs Patrick, original name Beatrice Stella Tanner. 1865-- 1940, English actress
5. Roy. 1901--57, South African poet. His poetry is often satirical and includes The Flaming Terrapin (1924)
6. Thomas. 1777--1844, Scottish poet and critic, noted particularly for his war poems Hohenlinden and Ye Mariners of England