Canberra


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Canberra

(kăn`bərə), city (1991 pop. 276,162), capital of Australia, in the Australian Capital TerritoryAustralian Capital Territory
(1991 pop. 276,468), 939 sq mi (2,432 sq km), SE Australia, an enclave within New South Wales, containing Canberra, capital of Australia. It was called the Federal Capital Territory until 1938.
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, SE Australia. The Canberra urban agglomeration includes a small area in New South Wales. The federal government is the largest employer in Canberra; there are also printing and service industries. The site chosen (1908) for the capital city was first settled in 1824. In 1913, Canberra officially became the second capital of the commonwealth (succeeding MelbourneMelbourne,
city (1991 pop. 2,761,995), capital of Victoria, SE Australia, on Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River. Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, is a rail and air hub and financial and commercial center.
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); however, although the Parliament first met there in 1927, the transfer of federal functions was not completed until after World War II and the striking Parliament House, on Capitol Hill, was not opened until 1988. The city was planned by the American architect Walter Burley Griffin. In 2003 parts of Canberra were ravaged by drought-intensified wildfires; the facilities of Mount Stromlo Observatory were among the buildings destroyed. Canberra is the seat of the Duntroon Royal Military College, Australian National Univ., the National Gallery, the Australian War Memorial, the National Library, the National Museum of Australia, the Academy of Science, and other research and scientific institutions.

Canberra

 

the capital of the Commonwealth of Australia and an important administrative, cultural, scientific, and business center. The city has been the site of the Australian Parliament and government since 1927.

Canberra is located in southeastern Australia, on a hilly plain at an elevation of 500–600 m, and has a subtropical continental climate. The city’s average temperature is 5.9°C in July and 20.7°C in January. Total annual precipitation is 620 mm. Area, 298 sq km; population, 141, 200 (1971). The city, together with its suburbs, forms an independent administrative unit, the Australian Capital Territory, with an area of 2, 369.5 sq km and a population of 143, 500 (1971). Canberra is linked by railroad lines with Sydney and Melbourne and is a junction of highway and airline routes. An airport is located near the city. Food and light industries play a leading role in the city’s economy. Farms near Canberra supply the city with meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables. Tourism plays a considerable role in Canberra’s economy, with more than 1 million tourists a year.

The founding of Canberra dates from the 1908–09 decision of the Australian Parliament establishing it as the site for the federal capital. Construction began in 1913 and followed the plans of an American architect, W. B. Griffin, who had won an international competition held by the Australian government in 1911–12. A garden city on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra is divided into commercial, administrative, and educational zones. The plan is based on a system of squares, with commercial centers and streets radiating from and encircling the squares. The districts are separated from each other by park zones and are linked by a well-developed network of highways and bridges. The city’s buildings are in a restrained, neoclassical style: for example, the Parliament building, built in 1927. The construction of buildings higher than ten or 11 stories is prohibited. The Australian National University, built in 1952 and designed by the architect B. B. Lewis, is among the city’s structures built in contemporary style.

The Australian National University, the National Library, and the Australian Academy of Sciences are located in Canberra. An important astronomical observatory is situated near the city, on Mount Stromlo. Canberra has a cultural center, with two auditoriums, several amateur theater troupes (companies), and the Albert Hall for concerts. There are also racecourses in the city.

REFERENCE

Canberra: A Nation is Capital. Edited by N. L. White. Sydney-London[1954].

Canberra

the capital of Australia, in Australian Capital Territory: founded in 1913 as a planned capital. Pop.: 309 799 (2001)
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