Candidate of Sciences


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Candidate of Sciences

 

(or candidate), the first advanced degree in the USSR, awarded to individuals with higher education who pass the candidate minimum examinations and who publicly defend a dissertation for the candidate’s degree. The degree was established by a decree of the Council of Peoples’ Commissars of the USSR on Jan. 13, 1934. The candidate of sciences degree is conferred by academic councils of higher educational institutions (departments) or of scientific research institutions, and as a check, dissertations for the candidate’s degree are examined by the Supreme Certifying Commission. In 1972 the right to accept candidates’ dissertations for defense was granted to the councils of approximately 1,000 higher educational and scientific research institutions. A total of 249, 200 scientific associates possessed the candidate of sciences degree in 1971.

The holder of the candidate of sciences degree has the right to participate in competitions for appointments to the positions of docent, senior research associate, and head of a subdepartment, laboratory, or other section in a higher educational or scientific research institution and has the right to defend a dissertation for the advanced degree of doctor of sciences. The candidate of sciences degree corresponds to the doctor of philosophy degree which exists in the USA, Great Britain, and other countries.

M. N. VOLKOV

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Punning received a candidate of sciences (PhD) degree in the field of geology and mineralogy, and shortly thereafter he established one of the leading isotope laboratories in the world at the Institute of Geology.
She graduated with honors from the Moscow State University, Faculty of Law (2000) and was awarded a Candidate of Sciences degree (Ph.
After passing the postgraduate course at the same university (1953-1956), he was awarded the Candidate of Sciences degree in geology and mineralogy.

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