cantata

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cantata

(kəntä`tə) [Ital.,=sung], composite musical form similar to a short unacted opera or brief oratoriooratorio
, musical composition employing chorus, orchestra, and soloists and usually, but not necessarily, a setting of a sacred libretto without stage action or scenery.
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, developed in Italy in the baroque period. The term was first used in 1620 to refer to strophic variations in the voice part over a recurrent melody in the bass accompaniment. Gradually the cantata came to contain contrasting sections of recitative and aria separated by instrumental passages, often in the current operatic style. In the second half of the 17th cent. the secular cantata was standardized by Stradella, Alessandro Scarlatti, and other members of the Neapolitan school into two arias with recitatives. This form was very popular through the 18th cent. as a vehicle for virtuoso singing. In France the cantata was adapted by Rameau to contain three arias with recitatives. In Germany the sacred cantata was more popular than the secular. It incorporated extensive choral and instrumental sections. A particular variety, the chorale cantata, utilized the verses of hymns and frequently the hymn tunes in various parts of the cantata. This type, as written by J. S. Bach, opens with a chorus, which is followed by recitatives and arias for each soloist, and then closes with a harmonized chorale. After Bach the cantata became, in general, a diminutive form of the oratorio.

Cantata

 

a large work for voices and instruments, usually soloists, chorus, and orchestra. There are solemn, joyful, lyrical, sorrowful, and narrative cantatas in two basic types: secular and church (sacred). A cantata is usually made up of an orchestral introduction, arias, recitatives, and choruses. It is related to the oratorio but is written on a smaller scale, without dramatic plot development, and primarily in chamber style.

The cantata developed in Italy in the first half of the 17th century. Initially the Italian cantata was monodic; later it grew closer to opera. It flourished in the mid-17th century with the work of such composers as G. Carissimi, A. Stradella, and A. Scarlatti. The Italian cantatas were secular; the church cantata took shape in Germany, giving the chorus added importance in relation to the orchestra and soloists. J. S. Bach’s church and secular cantatas are among the greatest examples of the genre.

The first Russian cantatas were written in the 18th century. In the second half of the 19th century a number of significant cantatas were written by Russian composers of the classical school, including Tchaikovsky (Moscow), Rimsky-Korsakov (From Homer), S. I. Taneev, and S. Rachmaninoff. The Soviet cantata is distinguished by the heightened role of the chorus and the use of intonations from folk and popular songs. The most prominent themes are historical-heroic (Alexander Nevsky by Prokofiev and the symphony-cantata In Kulikovo Field by Iu. A. Shaporin) and patriotic (Cantata About the Motherland by A. G. Arutiunian and the symphony-cantata My Ukraine by A. Ia. Shtogarenko).

REFERENCES

Khokhlovkina, A. Sovetskaia oratoriia i kantata. Moscow, 1955.
Shirinian, R. Oratoriia i kantata. Moscow, 1960.
Schmitz, E. Geschichte der Kantate und des geistlichen Konzerts, vol. 1: Geschichte der weltlichen Solokantate, [3rd ed.]. Hildesheim, 1965.

B. V. LEVIK

cantata

a musical setting of a text, esp a religious text, consisting of arias, duets, and choruses interspersed with recitatives
References in periodicals archive ?
The two halves of Roellig's cantata for Christmas day mirror each other in organization.
Kahane will do Bach's Magnificat on Friday; Halls leads Bach's Cantata 80 (better known in its incarnation as the familiar hymn "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God") on July 5.
In looking at anthologies, they frequently include not only cantatas but also other musical genres such as canzonette, serenades, madrigals, duets, and opera scenes and arias, as well as instrumental pieces.
The triumphant cantata 51, Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen
The main course of the evening, the Easter Oratorio, which started life as a cantata for the birthday of a duke, was adapted for the birthday of a count and was recycled into this Easter Sunday oratorio filled with drama, emotion and ultimate jubilation.
The comparing was done in my middle system's room (where the Cantatas are normally situated), with the speakers set up AB/AB style, about 7 feet apart, and with the listening distance about 10 feet from the axis between the systems.
A trio of trumpets will join the choir and soloists Susan Moore, soprano, and Christopher Johnson, tenor, for Bach's Cantata No.
Luckily there's still plenty to enjoy in the highly colourful and operatic performance of the five cantatas presented here.
The cantata would introduce the seasons of the Church Year in narrative and musical form with the hope of fostering a greater understanding of the Christian story.
Now she has published sixty-one solo cantatas by Pasquini, most appearing in print for the first time, along with nine ensemble cantatas for two to five voices, and three solo Latin motets.
I have listened to all three cantatas as recorded by other artists and, in my opinion, the union between Jankova and Collegium 1704 is the most impressive.
And with similar dedication, the Monteverdi Choir and Soloists and English Baroque Soloists undertook conductor Sir John Eliot Gardiner's Bach Pilgrimage 2000, performing all 198 existing cantatas on their appropriate days in churches throughout Europe and the USA.