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1. Economics the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes
2. Biology the outer layer or covering of an organ, part, or organism



the long-term placement of capital in industry, agriculture, transport, or other sectors of the domestic or a foreign economy for the purpose of deriving profits. In bourgeois economics, two kinds of investments are distinguished: financial investments and real investments.

A financial investment is the exchange of capital for stocks, bonds, and other securities issued by corporations or the state. A real investment is the placement of capital into productive fixed capital (buildings, installations, equipment), housing construction, and goods and material supplies in the country itself and abroad. Investments are realized by private corporations and the state. Private investments are directed into sectors of the national economy where the greatest profit can be derived (primarily, industry); state investments are directed into less profitable branches, for example, into the infrastructure (the underlying economic sectors of society, such as education, communications, and transport). Private investments are financed out of internal resources (depreciation deductions and retained profits) and out of other sources enlisted for this purpose: long-term credit and the issuance of securities. The financial sources of state investments are taxes, domestic and foreign loans, the income of state enterprises, and the issue of new money.

The financial operations involving investments are realized through banks (commercial and investment banks) and other financial agencies: savings banks, insurance companies, investment trusts, pension funds, and the like, which contribute to the accumulation of huge funds that belong to the population and that are used in the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The bourgeois economic experts foresee the limits of investments not in capitalist production relations but in technical production conditions and psychological factors. Although it is true that investments create income and expand markets, the antagonistic class relations of capitalist society ultimately restrict growth. The operation of the universal law of capital accumulation leads to a situation in which, because the investments are followed by a rise in the organic structure of capital, the wealth of the capitalists is growing whereas the conditions of life of the working class are deteriorating.


References in periodicals archive ?
Capital investments in the field of education next year have also been raised by more than 200 percent, to 2.
South African companies were the second most active in investing overseas, with a strong growth of 25 per cent more projects overseas, 93 per cent more capital investment and 65 per cent more job creation in 2011.
Since no final decision on tariffs has been made, the associated uncertainty continues to exert downward pressure on capital investment in key natural monopolies.
The framework brings together measures to manage capital investment more effectively and to further improve public services for people across Wales.
The annual state totals for venture capital investments include dollars spent by any industry sector, not necessarily on technology infrastructure.
Based on the authors' experience, the indirect tax staff and the procurement department--the front-line agents in realizing and possibly identifying such savings--are rarely included when evaluating capital investment decisions.
The major contribution of this study lies in analyzing the organizational risk-variability in capital investments relationship over time using a large sample of pooled time-series data along the following two dimensions.
State and local governments use incentive programs to encourage or induce capital investment or job creation activities.
This company, as a result, requires additional working capital investment and suffers a lower free cash flow and, consequently, a reduced market capitalization.
It aims to brings together a full range of measures to manage capital investment more effectively and to further improve public services for people across Wales.
Investments by foreign companies and their affiliates represent more than 15 percent of the total capital invested in these projects, and approach 40 percent of total capital investment in several manufacturing industries.

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