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1. Economics the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes
2. Biology the outer layer or covering of an organ, part, or organism



the long-term placement of capital in industry, agriculture, transport, or other sectors of the domestic or a foreign economy for the purpose of deriving profits. In bourgeois economics, two kinds of investments are distinguished: financial investments and real investments.

A financial investment is the exchange of capital for stocks, bonds, and other securities issued by corporations or the state. A real investment is the placement of capital into productive fixed capital (buildings, installations, equipment), housing construction, and goods and material supplies in the country itself and abroad. Investments are realized by private corporations and the state. Private investments are directed into sectors of the national economy where the greatest profit can be derived (primarily, industry); state investments are directed into less profitable branches, for example, into the infrastructure (the underlying economic sectors of society, such as education, communications, and transport). Private investments are financed out of internal resources (depreciation deductions and retained profits) and out of other sources enlisted for this purpose: long-term credit and the issuance of securities. The financial sources of state investments are taxes, domestic and foreign loans, the income of state enterprises, and the issue of new money.

The financial operations involving investments are realized through banks (commercial and investment banks) and other financial agencies: savings banks, insurance companies, investment trusts, pension funds, and the like, which contribute to the accumulation of huge funds that belong to the population and that are used in the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The bourgeois economic experts foresee the limits of investments not in capitalist production relations but in technical production conditions and psychological factors. Although it is true that investments create income and expand markets, the antagonistic class relations of capitalist society ultimately restrict growth. The operation of the universal law of capital accumulation leads to a situation in which, because the investments are followed by a rise in the organic structure of capital, the wealth of the capitalists is growing whereas the conditions of life of the working class are deteriorating.


References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly, financial literature has shown that capital investments are sensitive to cash flow (Bond and Meghir, 1994; Fazzari et al.
based on a recent analysis of publicly available information, we know Kodak consumes about 28 [cents] in working capital investment per dollar of revenue.
The board will be supported by the Strategic Capital Investment Panel, which will advise on investment proposals.
Manufacturing projects created the vast majority of total capital investments in 2004 and were the source of the greatest number of new jobs.
The Bucksport mill was among the first in the world to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight coated papers; though how long it can continue to operate without an influx of capital investment is questionable, observers said.
Required space renovations and base building improvements are critical factors in the negotiation, since the level of required capital investment is central to calculating the restructured rental.
According to the Cleantech Venture Network([R]), North American venture capital investment in cleantech totaled a record $2.
This is the first business solution that uses predictive analytics to measure how pivotal employees impact business results and explain how human capital investments impact future Cash Flow Return on Investment.
5 million in venture capital investments in the third quarter of 2006, according to figures compiled by the Fairfax County Economic Development Authority (FCEDA) based on the recently released PricewaterhouseCoopers/Venture Economics/National Venture Capital Association MoneyTree[TM] Survey.
Venture capital investment in European cleantech companies totaled $147 million in Q3, or 12% of Europe's overall total of $1.
At its 18th Annual Global Power Breakfast, Fitch Ratings focused on new capital investment in utility infrastructure, noting that the utility industry is in reasonably solid financial shape.
The RSA grant is a discretionary grant established by the Welsh Assembly Government to aid businesses with capital investment projects in the Assisted Areas of Wales.

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