Capitulum


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capitulum

[kə′pich·ə·ləm]
(biology)
A rounded, knoblike, usually terminal proturberance on a structure.
(botany)
One of the rounded cells on the manubrium in the antheridia of lichens belonging to the Caliciales.

Capitulum

 

(also head) a monopodial inflorescence in plants whose main axis has thickened into a patelliform or globular surface on which small flowers are usually distributed. The flowers are tubular, ligulate, or pseudoligulate. This type of inflorescence is primarily characteristic of plants of the family Compositae (daisy, dandelion, and sunflower). It is also found among plants of the families Umbelliferae (eryngo and sanicle) and Campanulaceae (sheep's-bit). The capitulum is surrounded by a many-leaved involucre, formed by the bracts of the outer flower (in sheep's-bit) or by modified apical leaves (in Compositae). This structure aids in the pollination of the flowers. In the process of evolution, several biological adaptations occurred to prevent self-pollination. For example, the flowers open gradu-ally, and the stamens develop earlier than the pistils. The capitulum developed from the umbel as a result of the reduction of the length of the flower stem.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ten mature capitula (flowers senesced, but capitulum still closed) per site per week were collected as well and placed individually in plastic diet cups with cardboard lids and held in a screen house at ambient temperatures.
This presence means that the individual's mature ovocytes have already fertilized (Cruz & Hawkins 1998, Cruz 2000)* To define this size, a stereomicroscope was used to examine the interior of the capitulum of each specimen taken from samples collected during January 2007 to December 2007.
41) Furthermore, the reference to "confused doctrine" of bishops and priests in capitulum 17 reflects Boniface's reference to the two men's "doctrine" in the letter read aloud before the Roman Council.
To determine duration (in days) of each floral stage, any damaged capitulum was replaced by another healthy reproductive structure at about the same stage of development, so that further stages could be followed.
A defect in the distal humerus is present at the expected location of the capitulum.
The implantations involved the femoral condyles in 597 procedures, the patellofemoral joint in 118, the talar dome in 76, the tibial condyles in 25, the capitulum humeri in 6, the femoral head in 6, and the humeral head in 3.
Certain anatomical features of hard ticks such as capitulum and scutum ornamentation are used to differentiate between genus and species.
278, [section][section]16-17: "Volo etiam quod dicti libri ponantur in dicto loco et deputentur per capitulum continuo unus vel duo beneficiati qui habeant et teneantur dictos libros custodire die noctuque, sicut fiet in librariis sitis in locis mendicantium Florentie et Bononie, et melius, si potest .
The capitulum from De musica entitled `Quare caprea tali nomine censeatur et quid praesuli offeratur' (`Why caprea may be called by such kind of name and why it is offered to the bishop') contains two quotations from Genesis xxvii, which relates the story of the appropriation by Jacob of Esau's birthright.
In partial support of her contention, she quoted a capitulum from the Mozarabic Liber ordinum that reads "Ordo ad ordinandam abbatissam.
The Indo-European term "kaput" has yielded many other words such as cadet, cape, capitate, capitation, capitulum, captain, cattle, chapter, chief, chieftain, biceps, decapitate, kerchief, mischief, precipitate, recapitulate, and triceps (The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 1985:27).
Mozaffari and Asadi [18] studied safflower mutant genotypes under normal and drought conditions and reported a positive correlation among capitulum diameter, number of seeds in the capitulum, and seed oil content [18].