Caps


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Caps

 

an 18th-century Swedish political party.

At the end of the 1730’s, the proponents of the peaceful foreign policy conducted by the government of A. Horn were contemptuously nicknamed Caps (“nightcaps”) by their political foes, the Hats. The leaders of the Caps came from the large landowning aristocracy and opposed the oncoming war with Russia. In 1742 and 1743 the party had a majority in the Riksdag, but it lost it in 1745 and dissolved in 1747. It was reformed early in the 1760’s, but the so-called Young Caps made up virtually a new party. Attracting the opposition elements of the gentry to its ranks, it advanced an essentially bourgeois democratic program calling for economies in the state budget, greater freedom of enterprise, limitations on the privileges of the elite and the big bourgeoisie, freedom of the press, and equal opportunity for all estates to hold high state posts. The ideas of the Enlightenment strongly affected the Caps. With the diplomatic and financial support of Russia, they came to power in 1765. Their government, which lasted until 1769, was oriented toward Russia in foreign policy; it introduced a law on freedom of the press in 1766 and passed a number of other laws fulfilling the party program. After being displaced in 1769 by the Hats, the Caps again won a majority in the Riksdag in 1772 and returned to power. However, the palace revolution of Gustavus III in August 1772 led to their demise.

References in classic literature ?
a round-crowned fragment of a hat, like the cap of Mercury, and mounted on the back of a ragged, wild, half-broken colt, which he managed with a rope by way of halter.
When the professor enters a beer-hall in the evening where students are gathered together, these rise up and take off their caps, and invite the old gentleman to sit with them and partake.
Old Solomon, in his seedy clothes and long white locks, seemed to be luring that decent company by the magic scream of his fiddle--luring discreet matrons in turban-shaped caps, nay, Mrs.
He had even taken from his pocket a cupping apparatus, and was about to proceed to phlebotomy, when the object of his anxious solicitude suddenly revived; but it was to dash his cap from his head, and to throw dust on his grey hairs.
With all my heart," said the tailor; and drawing his hand from under his cloak he showed five caps stuck upon the five fingers of it, and said, "there are the caps this good man asks for; and by God and upon my conscience I haven't a scrap of cloth left, and I'll let the work be examined by the inspectors of the trade.
They fancied a legion of hobgoblins let loose upon them, and that they saw, by the fitful gleams of the scattered embers, strange figures, in red caps, gibbering and ramping around them.
There was Gill o' the Red Cap, the Sheriff's own head archer, and Diccon Cruikshank of Lincoln Town, and Adam o' the Dell, a man of Tamworth, of threescore years and more, yet hale and lusty still, who in his time had shot in the famous match at Woodstock, and had there beaten that renowned archer, Clym o' the Clough.
Since that time I have owned many kinds of caps and hats, but never one of which I have felt so proud as of the cap made of the two pieces of cloth sewed together by my mother.
Her time was past, she said, for such frivolities, and she offered the instrument for the breakfast cap of which Saxon had made so good a success.
I abhor every common-place phrase by which wit is intended; and 'setting one's cap at a man,' or 'making a conquest,' are the most odious of all.
He stooped a little, and with his tattered blue cap pointed under the carriage.
I began to say that I hoped I was not interrupting - when the clerk shoved this gentleman out with as little ceremony as I ever saw used, and tossing his fur cap out after him, left me alone.