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Caracalla(kărəkăl`ə), 188–217, Roman emperor (211–17); son of Septimius SeverusSeverus
or Septimius Severus
(Lucius Septimius Severus) , 146–211, Roman emperor (193–211), b. Africa. He was campaigning in Pannonia and Illyria when the emperor Commodus was murdered.
..... Click the link for more information. . His real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and he received his nickname from the caracalla, a Gallic tunic he regularly wore. He was made caesar in 196 and augustus in 198, but he resented having to share these honors with his brother Geta. Early in his career he revealed his ruthless character by bringing about the downfall of his father-in-law, the political leader Plautianus, through false reports. After Septimius Severus died, leaving the empire to his two sons, Caracalla murdered (212) the more popular Geta and ordered a general massacre of Geta's followers and sympathizers (including the jurist PapinianPapinian
(Aemilius Papinianus) , d. 212, Roman jurist. He was a close friend of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus, under whom he was libellorum magister [master of the rolls] and later Praetorian prefect; but Severus' son Caracalla had Papinian put to death for reasons
..... Click the link for more information. ). He thus ushered in a reign infamous for cruelty and bloodshed. Caracalla did, however, pacify the German frontier. He also extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire, not out of generosity but to increase his income from taxes in order to meet staggering expenses. He tried to buy popularity with his soldiers and planned an ambitious campaign to extend his father's conquests into old Persia. When leading an expedition in Asia, Caracalla was murdered by MacrinusMacrinus
(Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus) , 164–218, Roman emperor (217–18). A Moorish officer, prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Caracalla, he was threatened by the emperor's murderous plans.
..... Click the link for more information. , who succeeded him. The famous Baths of Caracalla were erected in his reign.
(also Septimius Bassianus Caracalla; imperial name, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus). Born 186, in Lugdunum; died 217, near Edessa. Roman emperor from 211.
At first Caracalla ruled jointly with his brother Geta, but after murdering his brother in 212, he ruled alone. Gaining the loyalty of the soldiers by raising their pay and giving them rewards, he exerted pressure on the senatorial and municipal leaders. He instituted a reign of terror, during which there took place the execution of aristocrats and the famous jurist Papinian and the massacre of the inhabitants of Alexandria, who opposed a supplementary conscription into the army. In 212 he issued the Constitutio Antoniniana, an edict which granted citizenship to almost all the inhabitants of the provinces, making them equal to the Romans as subjects and taxpayers. In 213 he undertook a campaign against the Germanic tribes of the Chatti and Ala-manni on the Rhine and then moved against the Iazyges and Carpi on the Danube. These were followed by a successful campaign into Parthia in 215. During a new Parthian campaign, in 217, he was killed by conspirators led by the Praetorian prefect Opellius Macrinus.