Several functional groups were generated, such as carboxylic group
(COOH), carbonyl group (C=O), and hydroxyl group (O-H) as per their reference spectra .
Another evidently ongoing process is the development of acidity: genesis of carboxylic groups
in peat humic substances during the decomposition and humification of peat organic matter, which mostly proceeds in upper bog layers and significantly depends on precursor biological material.
The effect of functional monomer on the overall conversion, the colloidal properties of the latexes, and the distribution of the carboxylic groups
(buried, particle surface and aqueous phase) were examined.
In the eucalyptus samples, however, the greatest amount of carboxylic groups
was generated with the diluted tannery slurry treatment (L-EU, 0.
As the oligomer is usually not soluble in water, a few carboxylic groups
are incorporated into the oligomer chain to make it dispersible in alkaline aqueous solution.
In the absence of urea (1/0/1/1) the viscosity of the solution was also low, reinforcing the chain transfer role of glycerol and showing that urea promotes cross-linking of polymer chains through a reaction between the carboxylic groups
of the acrylic acid and the amino groups of urea.
Moreover, more alkyl groups can be grafted on MWCNTs with higher carboxylic group
density, for example, C14-3-CNT (8.
The carboxylic groups
and oxygen containing groups were introduced onto MWCNT surface facilitating further modification (8-10).
The apparent insolubility of the polymer in the HMM sample is probably due to the hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic group
in INM and the oxygen atoms in the polymer.
Gluconic acid has a carboxylic group
and five hydroxyl groups, and thus is a good chelator particularly in alkaline conditions.
The unreacted carboxylic groups
were potentiometrically titrated in tetrahydrofuran solution with 0.
The ratios of the molar amounts of the grafted and non-grafted GMA with respect to that of the carboxylic group
of the PBT, [COOH], under the blending composition are shown in Fig.