Another evidently ongoing process is the development of acidity: genesis of carboxylic groups
in peat humic substances during the decomposition and humification of peat organic matter, which mostly proceeds in upper bog layers and significantly depends on precursor biological material.
It has the availability of carboxylic group
in its molecular structure which allows the easy covalent binding at the nanomaterial surface.
Values of pH, carboxylic groups
, and BET surface area PI, Pine; EU, eucalyptus; L, S, diluted and undiluted tannery waste; Ctr, control Carboxylic BET Samples pH groups ([m.
The presence of carboxylic groups
increases the wetting and adhesion properties of the pigment-latex and filler-latex systems.
As the oligomer is usually not soluble in water, a few carboxylic groups
are incorporated into the oligomer chain to make it dispersible in alkaline aqueous solution.
I, different numbers of carboxylic groups
were added on MWCNTs by refluxing in 68% HNO3 (Merck) for 1-9 h (denoted as "n-CNT", where n is the time of acid treatment).
These values are close to the amounts of carboxylic groups
that were determined by polyelectrolyte titrations (Table 1).
The ESCA study thus confirmed the attachment of carboxylic groups
in CB 411, and attachment of carboxylic and amine groups in CB 414.
1] (due to the carboxylic groups
of resin acids), which is missing in the adhesive spectra.
Under these conditions, the free carboxylic groups
available in gelatin act as palladium reductants in the presence of heat and produce palladium metallic nanocatalyst.
Alginates--low-cost materials that are already used in foods, pharmaceutical products, paper, and other applications--are attractive because of their uniformly distributed carboxylic groups
However, distilled water, being a polar and nonpolymeric material, is able to react with MAPP to form carboxylic groups
, regardless the orientation of MAPP.