Carchemish


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Carchemish

(kär`kĭmĭsh, kärkē`mĭsh), ancient city, Turkey, on the Euphrates River, at the Syrian border, c.35 mi (56 km) SE of Gaziantep. It was an important Neo-Hittite city and was prosperous in the 9th cent. B.C. before it was destroyed by the Assyrians. Even then it continued as an important trade center. There, in 605 B.C., NebuchadnezzarNebuchadnezzar
, d. 562 B.C., king of Babylonia (c.605–562 B.C.), son and successor of Nabopolassar. In his father's reign he was sent to oppose the Egyptians, who were occupying W Syria and Palestine. At Carchemish he met and defeated (605 B.C.
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 defeated NechoNecho
, 609–593 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, 2d ruler of the XXVI dynasty, the son and successor of Psamtik and grandson of Necho, lord of Saïs. Necho took advantage of the confusion that followed the fall of Nineveh (612) to invade Palestine and Syria, both of which
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. Among the excavated remains are sculptured Neo-Hittite reliefs with hieroglyphic Hittite inscriptions.

Bibliography

See British Museum, Carchemish (3 vol. in 2, 1914–52).

Carchemish

 

an important ancient artisan and trade city on the right bank of the Euphrates River in northern Syria, near modern Jarablus. The city was founded about 3000 b.c. and existed until Roman times. The first written mention of the city dates from the 18th century b.c., when Carchemish was under the cultural influence of Mesopotamia. For a short time in the 15th century b.c., Carchemish was a vassalage of Egypt, and later, up to the 12th century b.c., of the Hittite empire. From the 12th to the eighth centuries b.c., Carchemish was the center of an independent kingdom. Sargon II conquered the city in 717 b.c. In 605 b.c., a battle took place there in which the Babylonian emperor Nebuchadnezzar II defeated the Egyptian pharaon Necho II and the Assyrian emperor Ashur-uballit II; this led to the ruin of the Assyrian state. Excavations conducted in 1876, 1878–1881, and 1908–19 have revealed fortifications; foundations and architectural details of palaces, temples, and other buildings; various sculptures; and cuneiform and hieroglyphic inscriptions.

REFERENCE

Klengel, H. Geschichte Syriens im 2. Jahrtausend vor unserer Zeit. Part1: Nordsyrien. Berlin. 1965.
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Survey name Abbreviation Birecik Dam Survey AS Amuq Valley Regional Project AVRP Balikh Survey BS Einwag Survey ES Jabbul Plain Survey JPS Jebel Abd al-Aziz Survey JAA Kurban Hoyuk Survey and Titris Hoyuk Survey (combined) KHS/TS Land of Carchemish Project LCP Leilan Regional Survey LRS Maqdissi Survey (West Syrian Steppe) MS Middle Khabur Survey MKS North Jazira Project NJP Oylum Hoyuk Survey OHS Qatna Survey QS Sites and Monuments in the Homs Region SHR Tell Beydar Survey TBS Tell Brak Sustaining Area Survey BSS Tell es-Sweyhat Survey SS Tell Hamoukar Survey THS Tell Rifa'at Survey (Qoueiq Plain) QRS Tigris-Euphrates Archaeological Reconnaissance TARP Project (Cizre-Silopi Plain) Upper Lake Tabqa Survey ULT Wadi Hammar Survey WHS Yarmdici Survey (Harran Plain) YS
Chapter 5 covers Carchemish, Malatya, Kummuh, and Masuwari/Til Barsip on the Euphrates, chapter 6 covers Gurgum, Patin, and Hamath in the Orontes watershed, and chapter 7 includes the kingdoms of Tabal, Que/Adanawa, and Hilakku in southern Anatolia.
Presenting a thoughtful and thorough analysis, and heavily illustrated with superb drawings, plans, and b&w plates of the sculpture, this volume describes the meaning and possible ceremonial uses of monumental sculpture at the Iron Age sites of Carchemish and Zincirli.
In the year 605 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon inflicted a decisive defeat on the joint armies of Egypt and Assyria at Carchemish.
Salvage project of the archaeological heritage of the Ilisu and Carchemish data reservoirs in 1998: 11-17.
The third section, "Interactions of Time and Space" contains essays on subjects of debate within the field: the question of a local style at Hansanlu, the context of the Karatepe reliefs, cultural interaction between Assyria and North Syria, the artistic and political role of the city of Carchemish and representations of the Phoenicians in Homer and in archaeology.
Egypt and Assyria were eventually routed by Babylon in 605 at Carchemish (cf.
Later Mesopotamia continues the story of Mesopotamian civilisation down to the period of King Nebchadnezzar of Babylon, while the Anatolian exhibition concentrates on material from ancient Turkey, including bronzes from the Kingdom of Urartu and stone sculptures from Carchemish.
In Salvage Project of the Archaeological Heritage of the Iltsu and Carchemish Dam Reservoirs Activities in 1999, ed.
Most scholars consider the main guides for dating Habakkuk to be the Battle of Carchemish in 605 and the passage For a work is being wrought in your days/ Which you would not believe if it were told.
Euphrates river valley settlement: the Carchemish sector in the third millennium BC (Levam Supplementary Series 5).
Euphrates River Valley settlement; the Carchemish sector in the third millennium BC.