Carchemish


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Carchemish

(kär`kĭmĭsh, kärkē`mĭsh), ancient city, Turkey, on the Euphrates River, at the Syrian border, c.35 mi (56 km) SE of Gaziantep. It was an important Neo-Hittite city and was prosperous in the 9th cent. B.C. before it was destroyed by the Assyrians. Even then it continued as an important trade center. There, in 605 B.C., NebuchadnezzarNebuchadnezzar
, d. 562 B.C., king of Babylonia (c.605–562 B.C.), son and successor of Nabopolassar. In his father's reign he was sent to oppose the Egyptians, who were occupying W Syria and Palestine. At Carchemish he met and defeated (605 B.C.
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 defeated NechoNecho
, 609–593 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, 2d ruler of the XXVI dynasty, the son and successor of Psamtik and grandson of Necho, lord of Saïs. Necho took advantage of the confusion that followed the fall of Nineveh (612) to invade Palestine and Syria, both of which
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. Among the excavated remains are sculptured Neo-Hittite reliefs with hieroglyphic Hittite inscriptions.

Bibliography

See British Museum, Carchemish (3 vol. in 2, 1914–52).

Carchemish

 

an important ancient artisan and trade city on the right bank of the Euphrates River in northern Syria, near modern Jarablus. The city was founded about 3000 b.c. and existed until Roman times. The first written mention of the city dates from the 18th century b.c., when Carchemish was under the cultural influence of Mesopotamia. For a short time in the 15th century b.c., Carchemish was a vassalage of Egypt, and later, up to the 12th century b.c., of the Hittite empire. From the 12th to the eighth centuries b.c., Carchemish was the center of an independent kingdom. Sargon II conquered the city in 717 b.c. In 605 b.c., a battle took place there in which the Babylonian emperor Nebuchadnezzar II defeated the Egyptian pharaon Necho II and the Assyrian emperor Ashur-uballit II; this led to the ruin of the Assyrian state. Excavations conducted in 1876, 1878–1881, and 1908–19 have revealed fortifications; foundations and architectural details of palaces, temples, and other buildings; various sculptures; and cuneiform and hieroglyphic inscriptions.

REFERENCE

Klengel, H. Geschichte Syriens im 2. Jahrtausend vor unserer Zeit. Part1: Nordsyrien. Berlin. 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
The local rulers and court systems handled local matters, but in matters concerning multiple vassal states or even appeals from local authority were handled at the viceregal level in Carchemish.
Wilkinson, Peltenburg, and Wilkinson present this summary of the 2006-2010 Land of Carchemish Project, applying remote sensing techniques for the first time to the larger area around the ancient city of Carchemish on the present day Turkish-Syrian border.
Chapter 5 covers Carchemish, Malatya, Kummuh, and Masuwari/Til Barsip on the Euphrates, chapter 6 covers Gurgum, Patin, and Hamath in the Orontes watershed, and chapter 7 includes the kingdoms of Tabal, Que/Adanawa, and Hilakku in southern Anatolia.
Presenting a thoughtful and thorough analysis, and heavily illustrated with superb drawings, plans, and b&w plates of the sculpture, this volume describes the meaning and possible ceremonial uses of monumental sculpture at the Iron Age sites of Carchemish and Zincirli.
This time, she visited the ancient Hittite city of Carchemish and recorded countless inscriptions there, then stumbled upon the spectacular yet undocumented fortress ruin of Ukhaidir where she set about taking photographs and drawing precise plans.
His early work in the field included excavations at Carchemish (1912-14) and the Egyptian site of Tel-el-Amarna (1921-22).
Much of this time was spent on a dig at Carchemish on the Euphrates, where a Hittite city had once stood.
Lawrence attended Oxford University, where he joined an expedition excavating the Hittite settlement of Carchemish on the Euphrates, working there from 1911 to 1914.
Born at Tremadoc, Caernarvonshire (August 15, 1888), the natural son of Sir Robert Chapman by his daughters' governess, Sara Maden, with whom he had eloped; educated at Jesus College, Oxford, and traveled to the Middle East to study Crusader castles (1909), the subject of his thesis when he took first-class honors in modern history (1910); obtained a traveling endowment from Magdalen College, which enabled him to join the expedition excavating Carchemish (Barak) on the Euphrates (1911-1914); explored northern Sinai with Leonard Woolley and Capt.
Gilibert, Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance: The Stone Reliefs at Carchemish and Zincirli in the Earlier First Millennium BCE (New York: de Gruyter, 2011).
The third section, "Interactions of Time and Space" contains essays on subjects of debate within the field: the question of a local style at Hansanlu, the context of the Karatepe reliefs, cultural interaction between Assyria and North Syria, the artistic and political role of the city of Carchemish and representations of the Phoenicians in Homer and in archaeology.
Egypt and Assyria were eventually routed by Babylon in 605 at Carchemish (cf.