John Henry Newman

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Newman, John Henry


Born Feb. 21, 1801, in London; died Aug. 11, 1890, in Edgbaston, near Birmingham. English theologian, educational theoretician, publicist, and church figure. Son of a banker.

Newman graduated from Oxford University and until 1833 combined university teaching with the duties of a vicar. His first work, The Arians of the Fourth Century (1833), already foreshadowed the direction that Newman would take in his later attempts to consolidate the religious doctrine of the Anglican Church. However, while working toward this goal in 90 periodically issued Tracts for the Times (1833–41), the aim of which was to bring a resounding halt to the “domination of liberalism in religious thought” and to revive “the true concept of the interrelationship between Anglicanism and the Catholic religion as a whole,” Newman moved further and further away from Anglicanism. In 1845 he converted to Catholicism and in 1847 became a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. From 1854 through 1858, Newman was rector of the Catholic University in Dublin. In 1879 he became a cardinal.

In his work Apologia pro vita sua (1864), Newman preached active acceptance of authoritarian religious views based on intuition and aided by force of will and moral feeling. Newman developed the position philosophically in An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870).

Newman’s works spread widely among Catholics and were translated into various languages. In the disputes between the representatives of Thomism and Scotism, Newman took the side of the followers of John Duns Scotus and defended the principle of an “open theology” free of scholastic confines. He thereby became a precursor of the renewal and modernization of Catholicism in the mid-20th century.


Works, vols. 1–37. London, 1868–81.
Essays and Sketches, vols. 1–3. New York, 1948.
The Letters and Diaries, vols. 1–18. London-New York, 1961–68.
The Philosophical Notebook of J. H. Newman (in 2 vols.), vol. 1. New York, 1969.


Ward, W. The Life of Cardinal Newman, vols. 1–2. London, 1912.
Bouyer, L. Newman: Sa Vie, sa spiritualité. Paris, 1952.
Hollis, C. Newman and the Modern World. New York, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
I said 'Please Cardinal Newman, help me to walk so that I may return to classes and be ordained'.
Parkinson, Secretary, Friends of Cardinal Newman, 141, Hagley Rd, Birmingham, B16 8UE.
After hearing the news that the village had been affected by the landslides, Cardinal Newman staff and pupils immediately began to throw activities to raise funds.
READY FOR VIEWING Katherine Milby from Abbotsford prepares vestments once owned by Cardinal Newman at Sir Walter Scott's Abbotsford home
Pope Benedict XVI will beatify Cardinal Newman in Birmingham on September 19.
Cardinal Newman, a convert to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism, who died in 1890, founded the Birmingham Oratory and was known for his work with the poor.
Campbell Hall held Cardinal Newman to just one field goal through the first 51/2 minutes, steadily stretching the lead to 20, 30 and finally 40 points -- incurring the state-championship mandated mercy rule in the final minutes -- in what turned out to be quite an easy victory for such an eagerly awaited showdown.
In a joint statement, the head teachers of Cardinal Newman RC Comprehensive and Hawthorn High School said, 'This unfortunate incident is not represen- tative of the excellent working relationship between Cardinal Newman Roman Catholic Comprehensive and Hawthorn High School.
There is a big age gap between the two schools - Llandovery College and Cardinal Newman Catholic School in Rhydyfelin, Pontypridd - but they strive equally for excellence.
This publication on the subject of Catholic intellectual excellence at the university level reproduces six papers from an annual meeting and four papers on John Henry Cardinal Newman in celebration of the 100th anniversary of his death in 1890.
Mike Truesdell, president of Cardinal Newman High School, explained that the other turf systems that he and his team evaluated were 2, 2-1/4 or 2-1/2 inches tall - which would not work for their purposes.
In Division Three, Cardinal Newman are a point behind in second place after a 2-0 win over Liobians while ACOL saw off bottom side Wavertree WDOB 4-1.