Cardinal Richelieu


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Cardinal Richelieu: Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Cardinal Mazarin

Richelieu, Cardinal

 

(Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu). Born Sept. 5, 1585, in Paris; died there Dec. 4, 1642. French statesman and cardinal (from 1622).

In 1624, Richelieu became head of the royal council and de facto ruler of France. Attempting to strengthen absolutism, he took La Rochelle (1628) and the southern fortresses (1629) from the Huguenots, who had set up a state within the state. He deprived the Huguenots of the political rights granted them under the Edict of Nantes (1598), but he maintained freedom of religion, as well as certain privileges enjoyed by the Huguenot bourgeoisie (the Edict of Mercy, 1629). In 1632, Richelieu suppressed a feudal rebellion in Languedoc and executed the Duke of Montmorency, the governor general. Richelieu ordered the destruction of the nobles’ castles, excluding those located along the country’s borders. Supervision of provincial governors was increased, and the rights of the provincial estates, parliaments, and tax collection authorities were greatly limited. Administrative duties were transferred to the provincial intendants.

Richelieu considered his principal foreign-policy task to be the struggle against the Hapsburgs, against whom he waged a “covert” war by supporting their enemies, the German Protestant princes, Holland, Denmark, and Sweden. In 1635 he took France into the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). The creation of a navy and reorganization of the army contributed to French victories.

In economics Richelieu pursued a mercantilist policy, expanding the French colonization of Canada and promoting French trading companies in the West Indies, including Santo Domingo, as well as in Senegal and Madagascar. To strengthen absolutism and broaden foreign policy, Richelieu increased the oppressive tax burden and harshly suppressed popular movements provoked by his tax policy, including many urban uprisings in the 1620’s, 1630’s, and 1640’s, as well as uprisings by the Croquants (1624, 1636–37) and the Va-nu-pieds (“the barefoot ones,” 1639). In his Political Testament, Richelieu stated the basic principles of the policy of French absolutism.

In literature and art, Richelieu promoted the development of French classicism. He founded the Académie Française.

WORKS

Maximes d’état …. Paris, 1880.
Mémoires, vols. 1–10. Paris, 1908–31.
Testament politique [7th ed.]. Paris, 1947.

REFERENCES

Liublinskaia, A. D. Frantsiia v nach. XVII v. Leningrad, 1959.
Liublinskaia, A. D. Frantsuzskii absoliutizm v pervoi treti XVII v. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Hanotaux, G. Histoire du cardinal de Richelieu, vols. 1–6. Paris [1932–47].
Hauser, H. La Pensée et l’action économique du cardinal de Richelieu. Paris, 1944.
Saint-Aulaire, A. F. de. Richelieu [2nd ed.] Paris, 1960.
Méthivier, H. Le Siècle de Louis XIII. Paris, 1964.
Burckhardt, C. J. Richelieu. Bern [1971].

A. I. KOROBOCHKO

References in periodicals archive ?
For lot 2, the benefits will take place primarily on the Cardinal Richelieu located at 58 rue Richelieu Paris 2nd (this address includes buildings depending on the site of Richelieu), Arsenal Street Sully in Paris 4th and incidentally Library Museum of the Opera Place de l~Opera in Paris 2nd).
Beam maintains throughout that the cultural shifts of the early seventeenth century resulted from diverse influences well established by the time Cardinal Richelieu patronized theater after 1635.
The Triple Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu from London (right) is one of many foreign loans.
Thwarted more times at the highest level than Cardinal Richelieu, she nevertheless has Group 1 ability on the basis of her Racing Post Rating of 123, to which could be added a '+' with little fear of contradiction.
The story of Guy Fawkes's plot to blow up Parliament in London in 1605 is accepted without demur (463-64); the papal schism initiated by Hippolytus is extended to 1439 (117, presumably the year 239 or thereabouts is intended); Vatican I is dated to 1879 instead of 1870 (651, though the correct date is given on 659); Cardinal Richelieu is wrongly described as a Capuchin friar (474); some 150 bishops and monks, rather than "fifty bishops," attended the Cyrilline council at Ephesus in 431 (126); crusades continued to be called long after 1459 (264)--witness the battle of Lepanto in 1571.
Paroled, he took his case to the French court, beseeching the King and Cardinal Richelieu not to forsake his colony.
The government, though, has a long memory of the machinations of Cardinal Richelieu.
National-security assets have been undermined by a group of people who had their own separate political agenda, "disaggregated from the American context," as Georgie Anne Geyer put it in her American Conservative cover story on Cheney as Cardinal Richelieu, gatekeeper to the court of Louis XIV.
They become inseparable as they battle the red-clad swordsmen of the wicked Cardinal Richelieu and thwart his scheme to disgrace their queen.
It is a city filled with political intrigues, as the king, Louis XIII, is merely a puppet and the real power lays with Cardinal Richelieu (splendidly portrayed by Charleton Heston).
D'Artagnan and the three musketeers, Athos, Porthos, and Aramis, have death-defying experiences as they defend the honor of Anne of Austria against the evil doings of Cardinal Richelieu.
This particular colonization project was a creation of Cardinal Richelieu, chief adviser of Louis XIII, and it was designed primarily to promote France's political and diplomatic policies.