cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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cardiopulmonary resuscitation

(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique. In either case it is done with great urgency to avoid the brain damage or death that result from four to six minutes without oxygen.

The first-aid procedure uses external heart massage (to keep the blood flowing through the body), which may be combined with artificial respiration (to keep air flowing in and out of the lungs). The victim is placed face up and if artificial respirationartificial respiration,
any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a person's lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or ceases, as in respiratory paralysis, drowning, electric shock, choking, gas or smoke inhalation, or poisoning.
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 is to be used, prepared for that. The person administering CPR places his or her hands (one on top of the other, with fingers interlocked) heel down on the victim's breastbone, leans forward, and makes 30 quick, rhythmical compressions (at a rate of about two per second) of about 2 in. (5 cm). This is followed by two breaths, administered using the mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration. CPR for infants and children differs in the ratio of compressions to breaths, and the compression of the chest is only 1 to 1.5 in. (2.5 to 3.8 cm). Ideally the procedure is done by two people, one to give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and one to apply external heart massage, and special training is recommended.

External heart massage alone may be given if a person is unwilling or unable to provide artificial respiration; studies have shown that heart massage alone can be as effective as both techniques combined. External heart massage only, also known as hands-only CPR, at the rate of 100 compressions per minute, is now considered as acceptable as standard CPR for teenagers and adults who have not collapsed due to breathing problems or drug abuse or who are not drowning victims.

It is recommended that CPR be continued for at least 45 minutes, but if there is no pulse after 20 minutes, experts now recommend considering other prodecures such as extracorporeal membrance oxygenation, in which the blood is circulated through an external filter that oxygenates it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital is an aggressive technique employing drugs and defibrillation equipment, which administers an electrical shock to the heart in an attempt to restore the heartbeat. There is some controversy surrounding its use in patients whose prognosis is poor.

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

[¦kärd·ē·ō′pu̇l·mə‚ner·ē ri‚səs·ə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
The simultaneous forced ventilation of the lungs and squeezing of the heart ventricles to sustain the flow of oxygenated blood throughout the system; often applied in cases of cardiac arrest. Abbreviated CPR.
References in periodicals archive ?
The wise coach will prepare for such situations by seeking certification in first aid and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Market size data for Respiratory Disposables market categories - Patient Interface, Oxygen Masks, Nasal Cannula, Nebulizer Masks, Resuscitators, Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Valves and Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Barriers
3 Set targets for dramatically increasing the number of Scots with basic cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and defibrillator training.
Scope - Market size data for Respiratory Disposables market categories - Patient Interface, Oxygen Masks, Nasal Cannula, Nebulizer Masks, Resuscitators, Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Valves and Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Barriers - Annualized market revenues ($m), volume (units) and average price ($) data for each of the segments and sub-segments within the seven market categories.
We started 'ambubaging' (artificial manual breathing unit) using the oxygen mask for 25 minutes and then cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for four minutes and after that the patient became conscious but with drowsiness and slurred speech," she recalled.
30pm and reportedly died as he waited for a cardio-pulmonary resuscitation team to arrive.
An ambulance was called and officers started cardio-pulmonary resuscitation but all attempts to revive him failed.
saved Gareth Jones' life David raised the alarm with the nearest ambulance crew while Dave, Ken and Brian carried out cardio-pulmonary resuscitation on Gareth.
Only France, Germany, and Ireland reported recommendations for emergency first-aid - cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and access to and training in the use of external defibrillators.
A West Midlands Ambulance Service spokeswoman said: "The driver was being given cardio-pulmonary resuscitation by members of the public when crews arrived.
His heart stopped six times and he was revived by life-saving cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and a defibrillator which sends an electric current to the heart.
Definitely patience and a cool head because, obviously, we deal with a lot of alcohol-related calls and aggressive callers, not to mention some very emotional calls from people who may have to do Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on a relative.