The most abundant genera found in the carapace microbiome include Jannaschia, Aquimarina, Cardiobacterium
, Thalassobius, Micrococcineae, and Loktanella.
Upon manual review, 12 were confirmed without changes, 2 clusters contained at least 1 isolate with >1% sequence difference in pairwise comparisons, 2 clusters were split because of >1% sequence heterogeneity, and isolates of 3 clusters could be identified to validly described species: Rothia aeria, Cardiobacterium hominis, and Streptomyces thermoviolaceus subsp.
thermoviolaceus Nocardiaceae GPR Most similar to Nocardia vermiculata Cardiobacteriaceae GNR Belong to Cardiobacterium hominis, poor reference sequence Flavobacteriaceae GNR Most similar to Chryseobacterium daecheongense Actinomycetaceae GPR Most similar to Actinomyces odontolyticus Actinomycetaceae GPR Most similar to Actinomyces meyeri Thermoactinomycetaceae GPR Most similar to Laceyella putida Actinomycetaceae GPR 2 separate taxa Streptococcaceae GPC Most similar to Streptococcus oralis Enterobacteriaceae GNR Most similar to Dickeya dieffenbachiae Actinomycetaceae GPR 2 separate taxa Streptococcaceae GPC Most similar to Streptococcus mitis * GPR, gram-positive rods; GNR, gram-negative rods; GPC, gram-positive cocci.
Length of incubation: Studies have shown that incubating blood-culture bottles past the accepted five days does not improve recovery of even the most fastidious microorganisms, most notably the rarely isolated HACEK group--Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella.
Utility of Extended Blood Culture Incubation for Isolation of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella Organisms: a Retrospective Multicenter Evaluation.
Invasiveness also may be a specific characteristic of the bacterium; phylogenetic methods placed the genus Schineria in a subgroup that included human pathogens Cardiobacterium
, Francisella, Coxiella, and Legionella.
1 Kingella kingae, and 1 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were identified among the HACEK group (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.
paraphrophilus and 1 Cardiobacterium hominis were identified.
Although rare, infective endocarditis is caused by gram-negative organisms such as the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium
hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) group, Bartonella spp.