Dental Caries

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Related to Carious lesion: incipient decay

dental caries

[¦dent·əl ′kar·ēz]
(medicine)

Dental Caries

 

an affection of the solid tissues of the teeth manifested by their gradual destruction (enamel, dentin, cemen-tum) and the formation of cavities.

The causes of dental caries are varied and have not been completely determined. According to the chemical-parasitic theory, it results from the mineral part of the teeth being dissolved by acids formed in the mouth during the breakdown of the carbohydrates in food; the organic portion of the teeth is subsequently decomposed by microbes. Dental caries may also develop without the action of microbes as a result of metabolic disturbances in the dental tissues. Diet is an important factor in the origin of dental caries. Dental caries was induced experimentally by giving animals food containing a large quantity of sugar. In localities where the drinking water is low in fluorine, the incidence of dental caries is particularly high. The individual enzyme peculiarities of the body, diseases, a mother’s diet during pregnancy, improper artificial feeding of infants, and rickets also affect the incidence of dental caries.

Caries generally affects the teeth of the upper jaw, especially the fifth milk and first molar teech. The carious process is usually concentrated near natural depressions on the tooth surface and on the contiguous surfaces in the neck of a tooth (region next to the gum). The disease starts with the formation of a defect in the enamel or neck part of the cementum projecting freely into the mouth. On reaching the dentin, the process spreads wide and deep, forming a carious cavity. Once started, the process does not stop but gradually progresses. The enamel loses its luster and transparency at the site of dental caries, and pigmentation and roughness appear. When the integrity of the enamel is impaired, pain is felt on eating sweet, acid, salty, hot, or cold food. Dental caries is usually chronic. Acute dental caries is generally found in young people, and it is often due to a disturbance of internal secretion.

Treatment consists in restoration of the anatomical structure and function of the tooth by filling it. The procedure involves removal of the soft dentin and formation of a suitable cavity to hold the filling.

Prevention consists in taking action to increase tooth resistance to caries (providing the body with the essential salts, chiefly calcium and phosphorus, and vitamin D) during formation and mineralization of the teeth (from the fourth to fifth month of intrauterine development to age 11 years). After the teeth erupt prevention consists in proper diet and oral hygiene.

REFERENCES

Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii.Moscow, 1967.
Pilz, W., C. Plathner, and H. Taatz. Grundlagen der Kariologie undEndodontie. Leipzig, 1969.

V. N. ISAEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Those authors concluded that children with many carious lesions at 5 years of age are at high risk of being dentally anxious at 10.
The study specifically assessed the number of new cases of carious lesions that developed, the number of teeth extracted because of caries, and the number of filled teeth because of caries over the study period.
DIFOTI has shown promise in the detection of interproximal, occlusal, and smooth surface carious lesions.
The histopathological examination revealed that the soft tissue taken from this erupted tooth consisted of granulation tissue with bacterial invasion, while there could have been post-eruption contamination; such an appearance suggests that the histopathological appearance represents a carious lesion that occurred post-eruptively [Walton, 1980].
The reasons given for this lack of taking bitewing radiographs at the age of 6 years of age were insecurity about the cooperation of the child, doubts as to whether to treat the carious lesions and the safety of x-rays [Taylor and Macpherson, 2004].
Hamilton thus concludes that dental professionals should feel comfortable using the explorer to probe suspected carious lesions.
A study carried out with human molars (sound and with visible carious lesion in fissures) mapped the distribution of fluoride and calcium in the surface enamel of the occlusal fissures and determined the association between variations in fluoride concentration and the occurrence of demineralised areas in the enamel and subjacent dentine.
Caries-free At least one (ICDAS-II code 0) carious lesion n (%) (ICDAS-II code 1-6) n (%) School Non-ZEP 125 (41.
None of the subjects exhibited untreated active carious lesions as acute foci of infection in the oral cavity.
Figure 1 shows the percentages of 3, 5, 10 and 15-year-olds in the two cohorts who were caries-free, had initial or manifest carious lesions or restorations on proximal tooth surfaces in 1993 and 2003.
I like that I can confirm my own suspicions of a carious lesion with the DIAGNODent before I consult the dentist about my findings," the student commented.