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Carniola(kärnēō`lə), Croatian Kranj, historic region, in Slovenia. The history of this largely mountainous area is closely linked with that of SloveniaSlovenia
, Slovene Slovenija, officially Republic of Slovenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,011,000), 7,817 sq mi (20,246 sq km). It is bounded in the north by Austria, in the northeast by Hungary, in the southeast by Croatia, and in the west by Italy.
..... Click the link for more information. . The first known inhabitants, a Celtic tribe called the Carni, were displaced by the Romans, who made Carniola part of their province of PannoniaPannonia
, ancient Roman province, central Europe, southwest of the Danube, including parts of modern Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. Its natives, the warlike Pannonians, were Illyrians. Their final subjugation by Rome took place in A.D. 9.
..... Click the link for more information. . Slovenes settled Carniola in the 6th cent. CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
..... Click the link for more information. later incorporated it into his empire. The region became a march, or margraviate, under Bavarian suzerainty in the 10th cent. and in 1269 was acquired by BohemiaBohemia,
Czech Čechy, historic region (20,368 sq mi/52,753 sq km) and former kingdom, in W and central Czech Republic. Bohemia is bounded by Austria in the southeast, by Germany in the west and northwest, by Poland in the north and northeast, and by Moravia in the
..... Click the link for more information. . It passed to the Austrian Hapsburgs in 1282 and was made (1364) a titular duchy. In 1849 its status was raised to a crown land. LjubljanaLjubljana
, Ger. Laibach, city (1991 pop. 267,008), capital of Slovenia, on the Sava River. An industrial and transportation center, it has industries that manufacture textiles, paper, chemicals, and electronics.
..... Click the link for more information. was its chief city. After World War I, Carniola was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia, but the Italian part passed to what was then Yugoslavia's constituent republic of Slovenia in 1947.
(in Slovene, Kranjska; in German, Krain), a historical region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The nucleus of Carniola was lands in the basin of the Sava River. In antiquity Carniola was populated by tribes of Celts and Illyrians, and in the late sixth century it was settled by Slavs (Slovenes). From the sixth to eighth centuries it was ruled by the Avars. In the late eighth century it was incorporated into the Frankish state. From the second half of the tenth to the early 11th century, part of Carniola belonged to the duchy of Greater Carinthia, the remainder being part of the Slovene march. Until the second half of the 13th century, various German feudal families ruled Carniola; in 1335 it came under the Hapsburgs. Carniola became a duchy in 1364, later becoming one of the Hapsburgs’ crown lands. In the 16th century it was a center of large-scale peasant uprisings (1515 and 1573) and of the Reformation; the Slovene national movement sprang up there in the 19th century. In 1920 much of Carniola was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (since 1929, Yugoslavia), the rest going to Italy. Under the 1947 peace treaty with Italy, all of Carniola, as part of Slovenia, was reunified with Yugoslavia.