Carol II


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Carol II,

1893–1953, king of Romania, son of King FerdinandFerdinand,
1865–1927, king of Romania (1914–27), nephew of Carol I. The second son of the Prussian prince, Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, he was designated successor to the heirless Carol I in 1880.
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 and Queen MarieMarie
, 1875–1938, queen of Romania, consort of Ferdinand. The daughter of Alfred, duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she was the granddaughter of Czar Alexander II of Russia and of Queen Victoria of England.
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. While crown prince, he contracted a morganatic marriage with Zizi Labrino but divorced her to marry (1921) Princess Helen of Greece. He soon formed a liaison with Magda LupescuLupescu, Magda
, 1896?–1977, wife of Carol II of Romania. Her given name was Elena. Carol renounced (1925) his succession to the throne for her, but after becoming king (1930) he installed her as his official mistress.
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, with whom he lived in Paris after being forced (1925) to renounce his right of succession. On the death (1927) of King Ferdinand, Carol's son MichaelMichael,
1921–, king of Romania (1927–30, 1940–47). His father, Prince Carol (later Carol II), renounced his right of succession in 1925, and young Michael ascended the throne under a regency on the death of Ferdinand.
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 became king, but Carol, having divorced Queen Helen in 1928, returned to Romania in 1930, supplanted his son, and had himself proclaimed king de jure since 1927. A turbulent period began (see RomaniaRomania
or Rumania
, republic (2005 est. pop. 22,330,000), 91,699 sq mi (237,500 sq km), SE Europe. It borders on Hungary in the northwest, on Serbia in the southwest, on Bulgaria in the south, on the Black Sea in the southeast, on Moldova in the northeast, and on
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). In 1938, Carol formed a royal dictatorship. A contest between the king and the fascist Iron GuardIron Guard,
Romanian nationalistic, anti-Semitic, and antiparliamentary group, founded in 1924 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. Originally named the Legion of the Archangel Michael, it was organized on military lines and operated through terrorism.
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 ensued, with assassinations and massacres on both sides. Forced to call on Ion AntonescuAntonescu, Ion
, 1882–1946, Romanian marshal and dictator. He served in World War I and later became chief of staff, but he fell into disfavor with King Carol II because of his pro-Nazi attitude and his suspected intrigues with the Iron Guard. In World War II, on Sept.
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 to form a government (1940), Carol was deposed and fled abroad with Lupescu, whom he finally married in Brazil in 1947. Michael once more became king. Carol died in Portugal, but his remains were returned to Romania in 2003.

Carol II

1893--1953, king of Romania (1930--40), who was deposed by the Iron Guard
References in periodicals archive ?
Carol II came to the throne of Romania by removing his son Michael, still a minor at that time (Scurtu, 2001: 70-88).
Precipitation of events at international level by emphasizing revisionist tendencies and the establishment of authoritarian regimes in many European countries (Berstein and Milza, 1998: 112) gave confidence to King Carol II that he could impose such a regime in Romania.
Meanwhile, King Carol II of Romania had a refined taste that he did not lose after he was exiled.
These elective results gave king Carol II the opportunity to impose a minority party, led by Octavian Goga (Scurtu, Buzatu, 1999: 334), the representative of the political group from the fourth place in the elections.
A great importance was given by the authorities to the enrolment of the former Iron Guards members within the new political party; the legionnaires represented one of the major poles of opposition to the policy pursued by King Carol II, from the beginning of his reign.
By adopting this position, the King made a major mistake, a mistake that cost him very much; the excessive politicization of the Crown, through the loss of impartiality, which was required by his sovereign position, made Carol II lose the throne and also leave the country.
Hitler ordered the cars in 1939 for his fellow dictators Josef Stalin and King Carol II of Romania, keeping one for his own personal use.
The researchers were not allowed to divide the Romanian history in the reign of Carol I, the reign of Ferdinand or the reign of Carol II etc.
They are all trying the present the political party created by King Carol II, a little while before the end of 1938, from impartial positions.
The National Renaissance Front, the party founded by King Carol II on December 16th, 1938, was intended to be a mass party, a political party that would include among its representatives people of all social categories.
As discussions were coming to an end, King Carol II conducted a review of the main economic proposals made by the Romanian government for the British government, i.
Asa cum numele lui Mihnea, viitorul domn Mihnea Turcitul, aparea pe cartile de cult tiparite in timpul domniei tatalui sau, Alexandru II Mircea, tot astfel, numele lui Carol, viitorul rege Carol II, urma, cel mai probabil, sa fie mentionat intr-o editie a Noului Testament, tiparita in timpul domniei tatalui sau, Ferdinand.