Carolina


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Carolina

(kärōlē`nä), city (1990 pop. 177,806), Puerto Rico. Located 7 mi (11 km) SE of San Juan, it is a residential suburb of the capital, as well as a commercial and industrial center. Pharmaceuticals and chemical and electronic products are manufactured. Many banking institutions are there, as are the Univ. of Puerto Rico–Carolina, the Universidad del Caribe, and the Colegio Universitario del Este. Louis Muñoz Marín international airport is located in Carolina.

Carolina

 

a national German criminal code compiled in 1532.

The Carolina was named after Emperor Charles V. In addition to German customary law, in particular the penal code of Bamberg of 1507, the sources used by the compilers of the Carolina were statutes borrowed from Roman law and several Italian legal forms. Striving to unify German law, the code took into consideration the particularist tendencies of the various German lands. Its significance as a national German code was reduced by the qualification that the age-old, inherited, and lawful customs, that is, the privileges of the princes and feudal estates, were to be preserved.

Like the “bloody legislation” in Great Britain, which allowed the persecution of the peasant paupers, the Carolina was harsh toward the poor: malicious vagrants, it said, “should be executed as soon as they are taken to prison regardless of whether they have committed any other deed” (Karolina, Alma-Ata, 1967, pp. 191–92). Legal procedures made up the basic content of the Carolina. The code also defined a broad range of punishable deeds, including state, religious, and purely criminal offenses. It defined such concepts of criminal law as complicity, attempted murder, and aiding and abetting.

Published seven years after the Peasants’ War in Germany, the Carolina placed almost unlimited severity at the basis of criminal justice. For state, religious, property, and many other crimes, it provided for burning at the stake, quartering, breaking on the wheel, hanging, drowning, burying alive, dragging to the place of execution, torture with red-hot tongs, and the cutting off of hands, among other punishments. Judicial discretion was not restricted in any essential way. Questioning under torture was recognized as the normal form of investigation

The Carolina exerted a great influence on German particularist legislation: in some areas it simply was reissued as the locally valid law; in others, it was supplemented and revised. The code was in effect until the end of the 18th century.

REFERENCES

Karolina. Translated from Middle German, with an introduction and commentary by S. Ia. Bulatov. Alma-Ata, 1967.

Z. M. CHERNILOVSKII

Carolina

a former English colony on the E coast of North America, first established in 1663: divided in 1729 into North and South Carolina, which are often referred to as the Carolinas
References in classic literature ?
Well, we came to the place in five days' sailing; I think they call it Philip's Point; and behold, when we came thither, the ship bound to Carolina was loaded and gone away but three days before.
North Carolina fired Coach John Bunting earlier this week, which is ironic because sixyears ago USC coach Pete Carroll tried to get the Tar Heels job that eventually went to Bunting.
Tom Fowler's Carolina Journeys: Exploring The Trails Of The Carolinas Both Real And Imagined is an engaging and rather unique compilation of commentaries on locations and landmarks of the Carolinas as observed by a Carolina expert with years of little-known knowledge enhancing the book as a greater map of the Carolinas then any other standard travel guide.
Settlers refused to pay taxes when North Carolina failed to build roads or appoint judges and militia to protect them from hostile Indians.
The Carolina penal code of 1532, issued as a manual of court procedures for the Holy Roman Empire, offers an opportunity to examine connections between the legal text and broader cultural discourses.
In May 1888, Wilson, North Carolina, "educationally speaking," had reached "a crisis in her existence.
The Carolina Alliance for Fair Employment, a statewide grassroots group based in Greenville, South Carolina, is working to fill this void.
South Carolina seems to be awash With church-state conflict these days.
A University of California geography professor, Johnson happily accepted a new post as endowed professor at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.
13 /PRNewswire/ -- The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) approved a change of operations for Carolina Freight Carriers Corporation today.
NEW YORK -- Loews Corporation (NYSE:LTR;CG) announced today the declaration of a quarterly dividend on its Carolina Group stock, in the amount of $0.
After catching a flight Wednesday out of Los Angeles, the Saugus woman waited early Thursday in a staging area in Atlanta to learn where in North Carolina she would be dispatched.