There is also no doubt that the interest of the great Flemish naturalist Charles L'Ecluse (1526-1609) or Carolus Clusius
, as he was better known, was a primary factor contributing to Monardes's fame.
In an attempt to reify the belief that there is a "natural" order to the world, Carolus Clusius
, director of the Garden of Leiden, developed a system of classification and evaluation for the flower.
Originally, the country did not produce many flowers, but in 1592 the botanist Carolus Clusius
brought home some tulip bulbs he got from the Austrian ambassador to Turkey, who had received them from the Turkish sultan.
3) Carolus Clusius
, Aromatum, et simplicium aliquot medicamentorum apud Indos nascentium historia, Anvers, Christophe Plantin, 1567.
Thus, he devotes considerable space in Chapter 3 to carefully scrutinizing the religious and political debates that framed the career of the prominent early seventeenth-century botanist Carolus Clusius
, who founded the botanical garden at Leiden, and the ways in which Clusius sought to distance himself from these debates by developing an observational style that privileged descriptive detail, that is, that favored knowledge based on particulars, rather than on all-too-controversial general principles.
The tulip trade, Goldgar shows, was something that grew organically out of the networks of earlier liefhebbers (connoisseurs) of exotic plants, such as the famous botanist Carolus Clusius
, who had exchanged rare specimens with each other.
They include the botanist Carolus Clusius
, the naturalist and collector Bernardus Boerhaave, Jacobus Bontius in the areas of medicine and natural history, Rene Descartes (although not himself Dutch, he was a long-time resident there) on anatomy, the physician Willem ten Rhijne and his use of medical practices originating in Japan and China, the medical professor Hermann Boerhaave, and the physician Bernard Mandeville.
Estimant les botanistes italiens etre les plus connus et les mieux etudies et les botanistes iberiques les plus meconnus et les moins bien etudies (et, implicitement, les moins fiables), l'auteur decide d'exclure ces extremes de son champ d'investigation pour se concentrer sur la production des savants d'Europe du Nord, a savoir les naturalistes allemands, suisses et flamands tels que Hieronymus Bock, Leonart Fuchs, Conrad Gessner, Otto Brunfels, Carolus Clusius
ou Caspar Bauhin.
Here, an excited circle of humanistic botanical enthusiasts, including figures like the botanists Carolus Clusius
(1526-1609) and Joachim Camerarius (1500-70), corresponded about tulips throughout Europe in the later sixteenth century.
The science of breeding hybrids was poorly understood--a gardener who wished to produce a dark red flower would pour red wine over his beds--but successful enough that when the great French botanist Carolus Clusius
set out to catalogue the varieties of tulip in the late sixteenth century, he identified thirty-four distinct groups of hybrids, though the flower had been in Europe only a short time.
, in the Dutch Republic, described exotic animals on the basis of reports and specimens brought to him: though recognizing the limits of this approach, he still thought it added something to natural history.
After Bacon, however, natural history--with its growing emphasis on taxonomy and classification--bore little resemblance to the vibrant discipline that took shape under the direction of men like Conrad Gessner, Carolus Clusius
, Ole Worm, and Leonhart Fuchs.