Carpathian Operation of 1915

Carpathian Operation of 1915

 

an offensive of the Russian armies of the southwestern front in World War I (1914— 18) from January to April 1915.

The objective of the Russian command was to reach the Hungarian plains and put Austria-Hungary out of the war. The German command, anticipating the impending Russian offensive, transferred the six divisions that formed the Southern Army from the Carpathians to help Austria-Hungary. On January 10 the German command itself opened an offensive with the forces of the German Southern Army and the Austro-Hungarian Third and Fifth armies, striking blows at Sambor and Stryi.

Almost simultaneously General A. A. Brusilov’s Russian Eighth Army, reinforced by the XXII Corps of the Tenth Army, moved to the offensive but did not advance to any significant extent. The enemy tried to closely envelop the flank of the Eighth Army and to break through the rear of the Russian troops toward the Austro-Hungarian fortress of Przemys’l, which was blockaded by the Russian Eleventh Army. After fierce battles the left flank of the Eighth Army retreated toward the Dnestr. The further offensive of the enemy was stopped by troops that were transferred from the right flank of the Eighth Army (eight and a half infantry divisions and five cavalry divisions, making up the newly formed Ninth Army). On March 9 (22) the Austro-Hungarian garrison of 120, 000 men defending Przemysl surrendered. The troops of the Russian Eleventh Army released by the surrender were distributed among the Eighth and Third armies.

In March the Russian troops opened a new offensive against the German Southern Army and the Austro-Hungarian Third Army and advanced in the direction of Ungvár (Uzhgorod) but stopped about 30 km short of the city. To repel this offensive the enemy introduced the newly formed German Beskid Corps into action. The bloody battles in the Carpathians lasted until April. The Carpathian Operation did not attain its objectives, because the Russian troops were short of reserves, artillery, and ammunition. The enemy lost 800,000 men and the Russian forces, about 1 million men.

A. V. KUDRITSKII

Mentioned in ?