Carracci


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Related to Carracci: Domenichino, Guido Reni

Carracci

(kärät`chē), family of Italian painters of the Bolognese school, founders of an important academy of painting. Lodovico Carracci, 1555–1619, a pupil of Tintoretto in Venice, was influenced by Correggio and Titian. He also studied in Bologna, Padua, and Parma. With his cousins, Agostino and Annibale, and with Anthony de la Tour, he established in Bologna an academy of painting that sought to unite in one system the preeminent characteristics of each of the great masters. The school rapidly became one of the outstanding schools in Italy, and Lodovico remained its head until his death. Its noted pupils include Guido Reni, Francesco Albani, and Domenichino. Excelling as a teacher, Lodovico was also a painter of talent and energy. Excellent examples of his art abound in the churches of Bologna and elsewhere in Italy. Among the best are Sermon of John the Baptist (Pinacoteca, Bologna) and Vision of St. Hyacinth (Louvre). His cousin Agostino Carracci, 1557–1602, left the goldsmith's trade and studied painting with Prospero Fontana. He excelled in engraving and devoted most of his time to it until he joined his cousin and his brother in the founding of their academy and in the execution of numerous joint painting commissions. In 1597 he went to Rome and collaborated with Annibale in the decorating of the Farnese Palace gallery; he executed the admirable frescoes Triumph of Galatea and Rape of Cephalus (cartoons in the National Gall., London). He died in Parma just after completing his great work, Celestial, Terrestrial, and Venal Love, in the Casino. Other notable examples of his art are The Last Communion of St. Jerome (Pinacoteca, Bologna), Adulteress before Christ, and the masterly engraving of Tintoretto's Crucifixion. His brother Annibale Carracci, 1560–1609, a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, was a painter of unusual skill and versatility. He spent seven years studying the works of the masters, particularly those of Correggio and Parmigianino, in Venice and Parma. Returning to Bologna, he aided in the conducting of the academy school until 1595, when he went to Rome to assist in the Farnese gallery. The ceiling, for which he made thousands of preliminary drawings according to an elaborate structural system, was rich in illusionistic elements. It included feigned architectural and sculptural forms, which had great impact on later painters. Well known among his numerous works are Christ and the Woman of Samaria (Brera, Milan); Flight into Egypt (Doria Gall., Rome); The Dead Christ (Louvre); and The Temptation of St. Anthony (National Gall., London).

Bibliography

See study by D. Posner (2 vol. 1971); National Gallery of Art, The Age of Correggio and the Carracci (1987).

Carracci

 

a family of Italian artists of the Bolognese school, representatives of academism. Lodovico Carracci (baptized Apr.21, 1555, in Bologna; died there Nov. 13, 1619) and his cousins Agostino Carracci (born Aug. 15, 1557, in Bologna; died Mar. 22, 1602, in Parma) and Annibale Carracci (born Nov. 3, 1560, in Bologna; died July 15, 1609, in Rome) received their artistic training in Bologna. Their early works show the influences of Correggio, Michelangelo, and Tintoretto. Eclectically combining the devices of these masters, the Carraccis created their own style, which was a reaction against mannerism. They founded the Accademia degli Incamminate (Academy of Those Who Have Entered Upon the Correct Path) in Bologna circa 1585, which played an important role in the development of the principles of academic art. The academy’s methodology included painting from life. At the same time, following the formal traditions of the masters of the High Renaissance, the academy stressed the idealization of reality.

The Carraccis created a new type of altar painting, characterized by monumental compositions, bright colors, and effective foreshortening and representation of gestures. Their altarpieces include the Madonna of Bargellini (Lodovico Carracci, 1588), The Last Communion of St. Jerome (Agostino Carracci, 1591–93)—both are in the National Picture Gallery in Bologna—and the Assumption of the Virgin (Annibale Carracci, 1592) in the Church of Santa Maria del Popólo in Rome. The Carraccis collaborated in the painting of frescoes in several Bolognese palaces, including the Palazzo Fava (1580–85) and the Palazzo Magnani (1588–90).

Annibale Carracci was more talented than Agostino and Lodovico. He worked in Bologna, Parma, Venice, and Rome. Annibale’s genre paintings and portraits are noted for their keen and spontaneous observations (Self-portrait, 1590’s, the Hermitage, Leningrad). His landscape paintings, which are imbued with a sense of the grandeur and harmony of nature, played an important role in the development of the ideal landscape. The frescoes by Annibale and Agostino in the Palazzo Farnese in Rome (1597–1604) anticipated the decorative artistic complexes of the baroque period. In many ways, the two major schools of 17th-century European art—baroque and classical—were based on various elements in the art of the Carraccis.

REFERENCES

Catalogo critico del la mostra dei Carracci. Bologna, 1956.
Posner, D. Annibale Carracci. London, 1971.

V. E. MARKOVA

Carracci

a family of Italian painters, born in Bologna: Agostino (1557--1602); his brother, Annibale (1560--1609), noted for his frescoes, esp in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome; and their cousin, Ludovico (1555--1619). They were influential in reviving the classical tradition of the Renaissance and founded a teaching academy (1582) in Bologna
References in periodicals archive ?
The story that the three painters Carracci are depicted serving in the shop may well be fanciful, although consistent with the heavy humour of Annibale's sketch on canvas - technically brilliant - of a youth draining a goblet of wine with comic relish, his tilted nostrils and eyes viewed through the glass.
Domenichino's collaborator and fellow-pupil of the Carracci, Giovanni Lanfranco, painter of fanciful Baroque ceilings, represents, on a smaller scale than he was used to, the intense gesticulant conversation between Christ and the woman of Samaria.
It was only in 1590, when Goltzius finally visited Italy himself, that he turned his back on Spranger's northern version of Italian mannerism, which by then seemed outdated, and adopted a more restrained, classicising approach which owed much both to Raphael and to the developments and reforms of high mannerist extravagance currently being promoted by the Carracci in Bologna.
The Musee des Beaux-Arts in Besancon houses a rich collection of drawings by Annibale Carracci, four of which have never been published.
Whereas Giovanni Baglione, in his Lives of 1642, included more than two hundred biographies of artists, Bellori's was a highly selective group of twelve: nine painters (Annibale and Agostino Carracci, Federico Barocci, Caravaggio, Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Domenichino, Giovanni Lanfranco, and Nicolas Poussin), two sculptors (Francois Du Quesnoy and Alessandro Algardi), and one architect (Domenico Fontana).
In the eighteenth century, when the collection was formed, Bolognese painting - that of the Carracci and their pupils Guido Reni, Domenichino and Il Guercino - was much admired, as one notices in Smollett's Travels in France and Italy.
Highlights include an Annibale Carracci pencil sketch of a seated male nude at Bologna-based Fondantico, and a gold-ground painting entitled Madonna adoring the Christ Child with St John the Baptist, attributed to Pseudo Pier Francesco Fiorentino (active 1474-97), at the stand of Moretti.
This reconstruction of the pontiff dragon's symbolism was followed by the poet Torquato Tasso, who composed poems in Gerusalemme conquistata on the good nature of the dragon, and the painter Agostino Carracci, who marked an emblem of the dragon with the inscription "Isomini custodia dracone" (36, fig.
The Carracci, Visual Narrative and Heroic Poetry after Ariosto: The 'Story of Jason' in Palazzo Fava.
The difficulty for open-minded students like myself who did not see that show, was to understand how such a provocative approach could be made for works that seemed so seamlessly to fit into a tradition of elegant European landscapes running from Annibale Carracci to Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and Gaspard Dughet, from Claude-Joseph Vernet through Thomas Gainsborough, Hubert Robert, J.
Jerome, painted in 1614 for the high altar of San Girolamo alla Carita in Rome, from Agostino Carracci, who had painted the same subject about twenty years earlier for San Girolamo alla Certona in Bologna.
Another early acquisition was a Ludovico Carracci drawing.