Carrera, José Miguel


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Carrera, José Miguel

(hōsā` mēgĕl`), 1785–1821, Chilean revolutionist. With his brothers, Juan José and Luis, he overthrew the revolutionary junta headed by Martínez de RozasMartínez de Rozas, Juan
, 1759–1813, Chilean revolutionist, b. Mendoza, Argentina. A lawyer and scholar, he was a leading instigator of revolutionary ideas.
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 in 1813 and dominated Chile until replaced by Bernardo O'HigginsO'Higgins, Bernardo
, 1778–1842, South American revolutionary and ruler (1817–23) of Chile; illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins. He was chosen in 1813 to replace José Miguel Carrera as revolutionary leader.
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 later that year. He again seized control in 1814, precipitating a civil war that facilitated Spanish reconquest of Chile. Later he was forbidden by José de San Martín to reenter Chile. San Martín and O'Higgins ordered the execution at Mendoza of his brothers. Involving Argentina in civil turmoil, Carrera was on the point of invading Chile when he too was captured and beheaded at Mendoza.

Carrera, José Miguel

 

Born Oct. 15, 1785, in Santiago; died Sept. 4, 1821, in Mendoza, Argentina. Political and military figure in Chile. Born into a wealthy family.

Beginning in 1806, Carrera lived in Spain, where he studiedcommerce; he also was involved in the struggle of the Spanishpeople against the French occupation. Carrera returned to Chilein 1810, at the outbreak of the war for independence of theSpanish colonies in America. In 1811 he led a military coupd’etat that dissolved congress and established a dictatorship; heconsidered this to be the only means of effectively rebuffing theroyalists and the “moderate” elements, who did not share hisbelief in the need for radical action. Carrera carried out a numberof measures directed at strengthening the position of the patri-otic liberation movement: he introduced a constitution in 1812, opened a national institute and national libraries, and began thepublication of the first Chilean newspaper, Aurora. Carrera’sdictatorship, however, aroused bitter resistance from the “mod-erates,” which weakened the camp of the patriots. After thedefeat of the patriots at the battle of Rancagua (1814), Carreraleft the country.