casein

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casein

(kā`sēn), well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus. The calcium caseinates form an insoluble white curd when acidified by hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or when milk is soured by bacterial contaminants. Acid casein is used widely in cheese, adhesives, water paints, for coating paper, and in printing textiles and wallpaper. In neutral solutions the enzyme rennin converts one of the caseins to an insoluble curd; most of the protein in cheese is rennetrennet,
substance containing rennin, an enzyme having the property of clotting, or curdling, milk. It is used in the making of cheese and junket. Rennet is obtained from the stomachs of young mammals living on milk, especially from the inner lining of the fourth, or true,
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 casein curd. When treated with formaldehyde the curd forms casein plastic, used for manufacturing imitation tortoiseshell, jade, and lapis lazuli.

Casein

 

a complex phosphoprotein that is formed from its precursor caseinogen as a result of the splitting of peptide bonds in the process of milk curdling. Casein is readily soluble in saline solutions in neutral or alkaline media, and it precipitates when acidified. Its molecular weight is 75, 000–100, 000.

Casein is a heterogeneous protein; by physical and chemical methods it can be divided into three fractions that are similar to one another in amino-acid composition, (α-casein β-casein, and γ-casein). Dried casein is a tasteless and odorless white powder. Casein is the principal protein component of milk and milk products. Cow’s milk contains 2.8–3.5 percent casein; human milk, 0.3–0.9 percent. This most important dietary protein contains a complete complement of the essential amino acids; it contains especially high percentages of methionine (~3.5 percent), lysine (˜6.9 percent), tryptophan (~ 1.8 percent), leucine (˜12.1 percent), and valine (7.0 percent). The stomachs of mammals shortly after birth contain the enzyme chymosin, or rennin, which curdles milk (this can also be catalyzed by other proteolytic enzymes). In industry casein is used in the manufacture of paints, glues, synthetic fibers, and plastics.

I. B. ZBARSKII

casein

[′ka‚sēn]
(organic chemistry)
The protein of milk; a white solid soluble in acids.

casein

A protein; the chief nitrogenous ingredient of milk.

casein

a phosphoprotein, precipitated from milk by the action of rennin, forming the basis of cheese: used in the manufacture of plastics and adhesives
References in periodicals archive ?
The whey content was separated through acid precipitation of milk casein at its isoelectric point pH 4.
Especially, cheese yield increases with casein concentration, and cheese properties like milk coagulation time and curd firmness depend on the casein composition (Wedholm et al.
Further, the report states that whey proteins are increasingly preferred as casein proteins have a low percentage of branched amino acids and are slow digesting.
Finally, goats and yaks only produce A2 caseins, and most sheep milk is A2.
Casein markets include: ready-to-drink nutritional beverages, sports nutrition powders, protein bars, yogurts, processed cheeses and chocolates and candy baking goods, coffee creamers, spreads, ice creams, frozen desserts, soups and gravies.
Results from physical and chemical analyses, log SCC, and concentrations of casein fractions in stable and UNA milks were submitted to ANOVA using the SAS[R] General Linear Model (SAS INSTITUTE, 2004).
Process scale chromatographic isolation, characterizatrion and identification of tryptic bioactive casein phosphopeptides.
He alleges that gluten and casein found in french fries caused Roman to experience increased aggression and tantrums.
Made from a blend of soy products and rice milk, the tasty product line is completely cholesterol free, although the foods do contain casein.
Most of the studies, however, have focused on ultrafiltration (UF) that separates fat, casein, serum proteins and bound minerals in the retentate from the lactose and soluble minerals in the permeate.
The amino acids profile of caseins and whey proteins occupy a unique position in human nutrition.
The caseins has the ability to associate through hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions (DeKruif and Holt, 2003; Martin et al.