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Casimir III,1310–70, king of Poland (1333–70), son of Ladislaus ILadislaus I,
1260–1333, duke (1306–20) and later king (1320–33) of Poland; called Ladislaus the Short. He restored the Polish kingdom, which had been partitioned since 1138 (see Piast).
..... Click the link for more information. and last of the PiastPiast
, 1st dynasty of Polish dukes and kings. Its name was derived from that of its legendary ancestor, a simple peasant. The first historic member, Duke Mieszko I (reigned 962–92), began the unification of Poland and introduced Christianity.
..... Click the link for more information. dynasty. Called Casimir the Great, he brought comparative peace to Poland. By the Congress of Visegrad (1335) he promised to recognize the suzerainty over Silesia of John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia; in return John renounced all claim to the Polish throne. In 1339, Casimir officially acknowledged John's power. By the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) with the Teutonic KnightsTeutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
, German military religious order founded (1190–91) during the siege of Acre in the Third Crusade. It was originally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem.
..... Click the link for more information. , Casimir consolidated his territories, and later he acquired much of the duchy of Halych-Vladmir. He strengthened the royal power at the expense of the nobility and clergy; codified Polish law in the Statute of Wislica, alleviating the lot of the peasants (hence he was "king of the peasants"); improved the condition of the Jews; encouraged industry, commerce, and agriculture; and founded (1364) the Univ. of Kraków. Casimir was succeeded by his Angevin nephew, King Louis ILouis I
or Louis the Great,
1326–82, king of Hungary (1342–82) and of Poland (1370–82). He succeeded his father, Charles I, in Hungary, and his uncle, Casimir III, in Poland.
..... Click the link for more information. of Hungary.