Çatal Hüyük

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Çatal Hüyük

 

a Neolithic settlement that flourished in the second half of the seventh and in the early sixth millennia B.C. on the Konya Plain in southern Turkey. Çatal Hüyük, which was excavated between 1961 and 1963 by the British archaeologist J. Mellaart, occupies an area of 12.8 hectares. The cultural level, which is more than 6 m thick, is divided into 12 horizons. The rectangular dwellings were made of mud brick; they were attached to one another and access to them was from the roof. The economy was based on land cultivation, as seen from the discovery of wheat, emmer, and barley grains, peas, vetch, and almonds and the discovery of sickle insets and grain mortars. Cattle raising was also developed to some extent.

Beginning with the oldest horizon (12th horizon), small articles made of native copper and lead were found, along with tools made of flint and obsidian. Primitive clay pottery was discovered in the tenth horizon, but none was found in a number of succeeding horizons, which yielded vessels of stone and wood only. Clay pottery reappeared in the upper horizons in the form of flat-bottomed vessels of more sophisticated workmanship and occasionally with painted designs.

A shrine was also discovered at Çatal Hüyük, with paintings and reliefs depicting hunting scenes, animals, birds, and geometric designs. Numerous stone statuettes of people and animals were unearthed. The dead were buried in a flexed position beneath the floors of the houses.

REFERENCES

Mellaart, J. Çatal Hüyük: A Neolithic Town in Anatolia. London, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
Feminist critics have even disputed the designation of Minoan Crete, Catal Huyuk and pre-classical Greece--so often taken as representative of the pre-patriarchal world--as matrifocal (Eller 2000: 34, 100-101; Ruether 2005: 28 ff; Talalay 1994: 166 ff).
At the other end of the scale, as archaeological emphasis moves away from urban centres and central Mesopotamia, less concentrated BRB finds are increasingly made, such as at Arslantepe, Catal Huyuk in the Hatay (very late), Hama, Sakce Gozu, Tell Acana, Tell Brak (early levels), Tell Judaidah (very late), Tell Mohammed 'Arab, Tell Qarqar and Tepe Yahya (Beale 1978: 300, 306; McAdam & Mynors 1988: 49; Tomita 1988: 199; Frangipane 2001: 327; Schwartz 2001: 242, 264) and a growing number of Iranian plateau sites (Potts 2009: 5).
Archeozoologie quantitative: Les valeurs numeriques immediates a Catal Huyuk.
The richest corpus of modified aurochs skulls post-date these sites, and is documented from the early Late Neolithic site of Catal Huyuk in central Turkey (Mellaart 1967).
2) Catal Huyuk, including reconstructions of walls and chambers and information from Ian Hodder's current project; (3.
Excavations at Catal Huyuk, second preliminary report, 1962, Anatolian Studies 13: 43-103.
It ranges broadly from Catal Huyuk to the Hellenistic period.
The colours make it near-eastern (or one of our long-gone dry summers) and I am reminded of plans of Catal Huyuk and other such settlements.
The chipped stone industry of Catal Huyuk, Anatolian Studies 12: 67-110.
Marshack 1996b: 262); in the Levant it occurs on pebbles in the pre-agricultural Natufian [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 11A, 11B OMITTED] (Weinstein-Evron & Belfer-Cohen 1993; Marshack in press), the pre-pottery Neolithic [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 12 OMITTED](2) and the early Neolithic at Catal Huyuk (Mellaart 1967: figure 69).
It may be relevant that the bovid head is a crucial symbol at the Early Neolithic site of Catal Huyuk within the Taurus mountain range.
Those from the Neolithic levels at Nahal Hemar were preserved by desiccation (Kislev 1988: 76), those from Catal Huyuk were recovered from a destruction layer (Helbaek 1964; Mellaart 1964), and the single acorn find, from Beidha consisted of an impression in a clay wall (Helbaek 1966: 63).