Catalans

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Catalans

 

a nationality living in eastern Spain, primarily in Catalonia but also in Aragón and Valencia and on the Balearic and Pine islands. The population in Spain is more than 5.3 million (1970, estimate). Catalans also live in France (approximately 200, 000), Italy (approximately 15, 000, mainly on the island of Sardinia), Andorra (approximately 7, 000), and the USA and Latin America (approximately 200, 000). They speak Catalan and Spanish, and their religion is Catholicism.

The ancestors of the Catalans were Iberian tribes who came under the influence of the Celts, Carthaginian and Greek colonists, and, after the third century B.C., the Romans. The Alani, and later the Visigoths, ruled the territory of the Catalans for a short time in the fifth century. In the early eighth century the Catalans were conquered by the Arabs, who were driven out of northern Catalonia by the Franks in the late eighth century. The ethnic distinctiveness of the Catalans among the peoples of Spain was determined to a great extent by their prolonged contacts with the Franks. From the formation of a unified Spanish kingdom in the late 15th century until the mid-20th century, the Catalans have fought against the centralizing policies of the Spanish rulers and struggled for regional autonomy. During this struggle the Catalan nationality gradually took shape. The Catalans are engaged in industry (especially textiles), agriculture, and, along the coast, fishing. The distinctive culture of the Catalans is clearly expressed in their dances (the sardana and contrapás), choral singing, and crafts (artistic smithing, majolica). The Catalans possess a rich literature in their own language.

REFERENCE

Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.

N. N. SADOMSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
The will of the Catalan people cannot be suspended.
We have reached the moment that the Catalan people say 'enough is enough.
He added that the "only" way for the Catalan people to voice their opinion is an election involving a joint list of candidates of all parties in favor of an independent Catalan state.
I ask the people in the world, I ask the media and I also ask the democratic governments in the world to help the Catalan people decide its political future.
organize the referendum and let the Catalan people vote.
Opinion polls suggest that 80% of Catalan people support holding such a referendum and that 55% would vote for independence.
It refers to the fact that, for the Catalan people, Barca is a potent symbol of their history and culture, a place where they proudly sang their songs in their own language even though the fascist leader Franco had banned it, where they maintain their fierce independence and a strong spirit of rebellion.
Although opinion polls suggest the Catalan people remain divided on the issue of independence, many share Mas's belief that the region, one of the wealthiest in Spain, pays huge sums to Madrid in taxes and receives little in return.
This money is ours and we are not going to say thank you because they loan us money that belongs to the Catalan people," Catalan government spokesman Francesc Homs said this week.
Cruyff was also a hero of the Catalan people in 1991 when he won the European Cup as Barcelona manager.
A gripping, if miserable, read with plenty of family drama as well as an interesting history of the Catalan people.
When Franco ruled Spain with an iron fist, the Catalan people were banned from displaying their flag in public.