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a nationality living in eastern Spain, primarily in Catalonia but also in Aragón and Valencia and on the Balearic and Pine islands. The population in Spain is more than 5.3 million (1970, estimate). Catalans also live in France (approximately 200, 000), Italy (approximately 15, 000, mainly on the island of Sardinia), Andorra (approximately 7, 000), and the USA and Latin America (approximately 200, 000). They speak Catalan and Spanish, and their religion is Catholicism.

The ancestors of the Catalans were Iberian tribes who came under the influence of the Celts, Carthaginian and Greek colonists, and, after the third century B.C., the Romans. The Alani, and later the Visigoths, ruled the territory of the Catalans for a short time in the fifth century. In the early eighth century the Catalans were conquered by the Arabs, who were driven out of northern Catalonia by the Franks in the late eighth century. The ethnic distinctiveness of the Catalans among the peoples of Spain was determined to a great extent by their prolonged contacts with the Franks. From the formation of a unified Spanish kingdom in the late 15th century until the mid-20th century, the Catalans have fought against the centralizing policies of the Spanish rulers and struggled for regional autonomy. During this struggle the Catalan nationality gradually took shape. The Catalans are engaged in industry (especially textiles), agriculture, and, along the coast, fishing. The distinctive culture of the Catalans is clearly expressed in their dances (the sardana and contrapás), choral singing, and crafts (artistic smithing, majolica). The Catalans possess a rich literature in their own language.


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
We are very excited that this mission is being taken up by women all around the world, and the Catalan chapter is becoming the newest member of our global WL family," states Eva Klaudinyova, a co-founder of Women in Localization and Executive Board member in charge of chapter management and international expansion.
Nevertheless, the Catalans have since 1980 celebrated September 11 -- the day the Catalans, in 1714, finally came under Bourbon rule -- as their "National holiday".
ROUND THREE St Helens 22 Huddersfield Giants 28, Warrington Wolves 0 Wigan Warriors 28, Hull FC 22 Leeds Rhinos 36, Catalans Dragons 44 Castleford Tigers 26.
SNP MEP Alyn Smith, who is in Barcelona this weekend as part of an international parliamentary delegation, thinks Catalans deserve credit for remaining positive.
We want to put things right and make sure Catalans see the best of Wigan - they didn't that day, and far from it.
But, with Dureau off the field injured, Krisnan Inu added a last-minute penalty to seal a memorable win for the Catalans.
Given the informality of the process, it is hard to be precise on the proportion of potential voters who took part, but it was less than 50 per cent (68 per cent voted in the last Catalan election).
Catalans, we are proud of you and we admire the way you are expressing your collective desire for a better world.
It's worth mentioning that in contrast to the Scottish vote, Catalonia's referendum would not lead to separation: during the referendum, Catalans will vote on whether they approve of secession.
About half a million of Catalans have signed up to dress in red and yellow, the colours of the Catalan flag, to form a "V" for "vote", a show of support for the perceived right to decide on their own status beyond Spain.
Escare then bagged a quick double, Daryl Millard and Ben Pomeroy crossed, and the full-back completed a first-half hat-trick to put Catalans 34-0 up.
And, without international support, Catalans could balk at the idea of having to leave the European Union or give up the euro to gain independence.