Catenulida

Catenulida

[kə‚ten·yə′lī·də]
(invertebrate zoology)
An order of threadlike, colorless fresh-water rhabdocoeles with a simple pharynx and a single, median protonephridium.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Acoelomorpha, Catenulida e Rhabditophora (Rieger et al.
They are distributed into the following taxa: Acoela, Nemertodermatida, Catenulida, Macrostomida, Polycladida, Prolecithophora, Lecithoepitheliata, Revertospermata, Proseriata, Tricladida, Dalytyphloplanida and Kalyptorhynchia (Schockaert et al.
The following key-words were used: Platyhelminthes, Acoela, Nemertodermatida, Catenulida, Prolecithophora, Rhabdocoela, Temnocephalida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata or Revertospermata and Brazil.
Dalytyphloplanida and Catenulida are the most species-rich, with about 28% and 18% of the recorded species, respectively, followed by Acoela (15%), Prolecithophora (11%), Proseriata (10%), Kalyptorhynchia (9%), and Macrostomida (7%).
Although adult morphology varies vastly across the group, many core Lophotrochozoa (including the Mollusca, Annelida [including Vestimentifera, Pogonophora, and Echiura, and possibly Myzostoma, and Sipunculida], Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, dicyemid Mesozoa, Entoprocta, and some Platyhelminthes [including polyclad Turbellaria, Catenulida, and Macrostomida]) exhibit spiral cleavage, a highly conserved pattern of early development.
Evolution of body-wall musculature in the platyhelminthes (Acoela, Catenulida, Rhabditophora).
The modern concept of Platyhel-minthes comprises only Catenulida and Rhabditophora and places the group in the Lophotrochozoa or Spiralia (Giribet et al.
Molecular analyses that include other lower turbellarian groups (for example, the Catenulida and the Nemertodermatida) and the Orthonectida, a group tentatively included in the Mesozoa, will provide further information for understanding the phylogenetic position of the dicyemids.