Catherine de' Medici

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Medici, Catherine de':

see Catherine de' MediciCatherine de' Medici
, 1519–89, queen of France, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino. She was married (1533) to the duc d'Orléans, later King Henry II.
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Catherine de' Medici

(dĕ mĕd`ĭchē, Ital. dā mĕ`dēchē), 1519–89, queen of France, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino. She was married (1533) to the duc d'Orléans, later King Henry II. Neglected during the reign of her husband and that of her eldest son, Francis II, she became (1560) regent for her son Charles IXCharles IX,
1550–74, king of France. He succeeded (1560) his brother Francis II under the regency of his mother, Catherine de' Medici. She retained her influence throughout his reign.
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, who succeeded Francis. She remained Charles's adviser until his death (1574). Concerned primarily with preserving the power of the king in the religious conflicts of the time, with the aid of her chancellor Michel de L'HôpitalL'Hôpital or L'Hospital, Michel de
, c.1505–1573, chancellor of France under Catherine de' Medici.
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, she at first adopted a conciliatory policy toward the Huguenots, or French Protestants. The outbreak (1562) of the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars ofReligion, Wars of,
1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).
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), however, led her to an alliance with the Catholic party under François de Guise (see under GuiseGuise
, influential ducal family of France. The First Duke of Guise

The family was founded as a cadet branch of the ruling house of Lorraine by Claude de Lorraine, 1st duc de Guise, 1496–1550, who received the French fiefs of his father, René II, duke
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, family). After the defeat of royal troops by the Huguenot leader Gaspard de ColignyColigny, Gaspard de Châtillon, comte de
, 1519–72, French Protestant leader. A nephew of Anne, duc de Montmorency, he came to the French court at an early age.
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, Catherine agreed (1570) to the peace of St. Germain. Subsequently Coligny gained considerable influence over Charles IX. Fearing for her own power, and opposed to Coligny's schemes for expansion in the Low Countries which might lead to war with Spain, Catherine and Henri de Guise arranged Coligny's assassination. When the first attempt failed, she took part in planning the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's DaySaint Bartholomew's Day, massacre of,
murder of French Protestants, or Huguenots, that began in Paris on Aug. 24, 1572. It was preceded, on Aug. 22, by an attempt, ordered by Catherine de' Medici, on the life of the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny.
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 (1572) in which Coligny and hundreds of other Protestants were murdered. After the accession of her third son, Henry III, she vainly tried to revive her old conciliatory policy.

Bibliography

See E. Sichel, Catherine de' Medici and the French Reformation (1905, repr. 1969) and The Later Years of Catherine de' Medici (1908, repr. 1969); P. Van Dyke, Catherine de Médicis (1922); R. Roeder, Catherine de' Medici and the Lost Revolution (1937); Sir J. E. Neale, The Age of Catherine de Medici (1962); W. H. Ross, Catherine de' Medici (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
The royal wives and mistresses that Wellman analyzes (Agnes Sorel, Anne of Brittany, Diane de Poitiers, Catherine de Medici, Marguerite de Valois, and Gabrielle d'Estrees) all influenced public policies and perceptions of the monarchy as well as the monarch himself.
Nonetheless, Randall Martin argues that Dowriche's "presentation of Catherine de Medici influenced Marlowe," not only in The Massacre at Paris but in other Marlovian works, by introducing the figure of the Machiavel.
This contributes to Capodieci's building argument that the Valois did not present evidence of any sophisticated use of astral magic that warrants the dark reputation Catherine de Medici gained.
Careme drew inspiration from the principal tenants of Italian court cuisine introduced to France during the Renaissance era by Catherine de Medici.
A member of the famous Medici family, and before she became known to history as one of the cruel monarchs of France, Catherine de Medici was simple Caterina, a young girl who, upon the unexpected deaths of her parents, because a person of wealth who was married off to the handsome heir of the French throne in order to avoid imprisonment and other threats from her family's enemies.
Born in 1519, the future Henry II married Catherine de Medici in 1533 when they were both 14 years old.
The invention of the high heel as a fashion statement is attributed to Catherine de Medici.
Indeed, Goulart argues and presents evidence of the intentions of Catherine de Medici, Charles IX, and their councilors to subvert the peace that ended the third civil war and to exterminate the Protestants as heretics, beginning with Admiral Coligny.
In France, cyclists retrace the footsteps of King Charles VIII, Catherine de Medici, Leonardo da Vinci and Joan of Arc along the Loire, Indre and Cher rivers offering up dining and wine-tasting opportunities.
They can also examine the lives of the famous and infamous, including John Dee, Catherine de Medici, Bess of Hardwick and John Knox, and a nice range of primary sources, including excerpts from the contemporary Book of Common Prayer, a sonnet by Elizabeth, material on debates over policies relating to Catholics, and a disturbing account of crime and punishment.
To be fair, that's how all penalized in the scandal perceive things -- this is the land of Machiavelli, remember, and the hazy, mazy ways of doing business would make Catherine de Medici blush.
Four hundred years ago Catherine de Medici held renowned parties at this chateau, with girls dressed as mermaids placed along the river to greet party goers and scantily-clad nymphs to accompany them into the party.