Oxford movement

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Oxford movement,

religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England (see England, Church ofEngland, Church of,
the established church of England and the mother church of the Anglican Communion. Organization and Doctrine

The clergy of the church are of three ancient orders: deacons, priests, and bishops.
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) by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals. This attempt to stir the Established Church into new life arose among a group of spiritual leaders in Oriel College, Oxford. Prominent among them were John Henry NewmanNewman, John Henry,
1801–90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London. Early Life and Works
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, John KebleKeble, John
, 1792–1866, English clergyman and poet. His career (1807–11) at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was one of unusual distinction. Made fellow of Oriel College in 1811 and ordained in 1816, he became tutor and examiner, but resigned in 1823 to become his
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, Richard Hurrell Froude, Charles Marriott, and later Edward Bouverie PuseyPusey, Edward Bouverie
, 1800–1882, English clergyman, leader in the Oxford movement. Having studied at Christ Church College, Oxford, Pusey was elected a fellow of Oriel College (1823) and thus became associated with John Keble, John Henry Newman, and their group.
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 and Richard William ChurchChurch, Richard William,
1815–90, English Anglican clergyman. He was educated at Oxford, where he became a follower of John Henry Newman. As dean of St. Paul's (1871–90) he did much to disseminate High Church doctrine.
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. The Oxford movement has exerted a great influence, doctrinally, spiritually, and liturgically not only on the Church of England but also throughout the Anglican Communion.

Early Years: The Tracts

In July of 1833, Keble preached a sermon, On the National Apostasy, which Newman held to be the actual opening of the movement. A few days later a meeting was held at Hadleigh, Suffolk, in the rectory house of Hugh James Rose, "the Cambridge originator of the Oxford movement," and a resolution was made to uphold "the apostolic succession and the integrity of the Prayer-Book." Newman, who felt that extensive popularizing was more effective than organization, immediately launched a series of pamphlets, Tracts for the Times. Later, Keble and Pusey joined him, and their group became known as the Tractarians. To the tracts was added The Library of the Father of the Holy Catholic Church (translations from patristic writings) to encourage a return to the beliefs and customs of the first centuries of the church.

The Tractarians preached Anglicanism as a via media between Roman Catholicism and evangelicalism. Newman became the acknowledged leader in answering critics and advocating the restoration of practices abandoned in the Church of England since the ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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. When the Tractarians attacked Renn Dickson Hampden, a follower of Richard Whately, the liberals, led by Dr. Thomas Arnold, opposed them openly. After 1834, Pusey was influential in the movement, adding force and dignity to the controversial manner and emphasizing the observance of ritual. Opponents dubbed the movement "Puseyism."

Within the movement itself, a Romanizing party developed under William George WardWard, William George,
1812–82, English Roman Catholic apologist, educated at Oxford. He became (1834) a fellow at Balliol College, Oxford, and was ordained in the Church of England. At first a Broad Churchman, he joined the Oxford movement in 1838.
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, Frederick William FaberFaber, Frederick William
, 1814–63, English theologian and hymn writer. A friend of John Henry Newman and an adherent of the Oxford movement, he became (1843) rector of Eton.
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 and others, and it was partly to counter them that Newman wrote his celebrated Tract 90 on the Thirty-nine Articles, which aroused a storm of opposition and brought the series to an end (1841). The movement lost valuable supporters to Roman Catholicism, including Newman, and Henry Edward ManningManning, Henry Edward,
1808–92, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Early Life and Anglican Churchman

Manning was born of a Low Church family and was educated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A.
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. The movement to Roman Catholicism was opposed by Pusey, under whose leadership the majority remained loyal to the Church of England. Under Pusey the movement advanced beyond its academic beginning and became an effective vehicle for ecclesiastical and, later, social reform.

Later Years: Changes in Religious Practices

Among the means for renewing deep and personal devotion to the teachings of the Bible, Keble, Newman, and especially Pusey, sought to develop religious community life. Sisterhoods were founded, the first in 1845. They became centers of charitable and social work of importance. Communities for men were fewer and expanded less rapidly.

The Oxford movement also stressed higher standards of worship, and particularly in the later period many changes were made in the church services, e.g., beautification of churches, intonation of services, the wearing of vestments, and emphasis on hymn singing. Every effort to revive ceremonial customs aroused a storm of excitement and opposition leading at times to rioting. This violence culminated in 1860 at St. George's-in-the East, London. Because attention was centered upon the forms of expression in the churches, especially between 1857 and 1871, the followers of the Oxford movement became known as ritualists. Anglo-Catholicism was another name for the movement as its supporters tried to secure in the Established Church recognition of ancient Catholic liturgy and doctrine.

The changes desired by the ritualists caused much public agitation and litigation between 1850 and 1890. In 1874 the Public Worship Regulation Act was passed by Parliament, avowedly to "put down Ritualism." On the part of churchmen the struggle was fought in resistance to secular authority in spiritual affairs. No Anglo-Catholic could recognize the mandates of a purely parliamentary court, such as the judicial committee of the privy council, which, although it lacked spiritual authority, was the supreme court of ecclesiastical appeal. The last imprisonment for refusal to admit its authority was made in 1887, after which such resistance was respected as reasonable.

In later years the followers of the movement placed increasing emphasis on the responsibility of Christians in the life of society and have given much attention to social problems. This social concern led to the foundation of the Christian Social Union in 1889 under Brooke Foss Westcott and Henry Scott Holland.

Bibliography

See R. W. Church, The Oxford Movement (1891; rev. ed. 1970, ed. by G. Best and J. Clive); E. R. Fairweather, The Oxford Movement (1964); M. R. O'Connell, The Oxford Conspirators (1969); R. Chapman, Faith and Revolt (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Catholic Revival is remembered for celebrated conversions (Cocteau), signal contributions to literature and the arts (Paul Claudel, Georges Bemanos, Georges Rouault), and, above all, a "suffering-centered imaginaire" (3) that stood as a sign of contradiction in secular, positivist, republican France (68).
The veneration of the saints in the ages of ardent faith--the time of the Church of the catacombs, for example, or the era of the evangelical Catholic revival at the end of the nineteenth century--often fired and may still fire the imaginations of the faithful to help them enter into the life of the Church triumphant through prayer, literature (especially poetry), and art.
The central theme of the study is the genuine tension between the autonomy of the human person, central to American liberalism, and the Organic sense of community and solidarity central to the Catholic revival, to ethnic Catholic experience, and to Catholic social teaching.
34) Michael Power fou nd himself not only at the nerve centre of diocesan politics, but at the eye of a veritable Catholic revival.
In its inaugural issue nine years later, Renascence, in somewhat less triumphalist fashion, similarly linked its own mission to the revival with then editor-in-chief John Pick stating that the purpose of the journal would be to "stimulate an appreciation" for the writers of the Catholic revival by encouraging "a critical evaluation of their work," adding that their contributions "are all too little known to a world which so crucially needs them" ("Editorial").
Siedell's exploration of the traces of Christianity in the history of modern art is, however, relatively brief and, with its primarily American focus (his consideration of modern art begins with the Armory Show of 1913 when it first came to the attention of the American public) overlooks the influence of the French Catholic Revival on the earliest phases of modern art and contemporary manifestations such as the extensive use of Christian imagery in the work of many of the so-called yBas.
Schloesser notes that the Catholic revival takes on more urgency after the trauma and grief of World War I.
Peter Huff's more recent Allen Tare and the Catholic Revival (1996) serves as a concise intellectual biography but seems more interested in Tate's historical exemplarity than in understanding the dynamics of the writings on which his historical importance is based.
I believe what the Anglican Church of Canada needs these days is a revival of the use of the Book of Common Prayer and a Catholic revival like we had in the Oxford Movement.
I suggest that no Catholicism that hopes to respond adequately to the largely secular but spiritually hungry culture of our time or that wishes to garner more than nostalgic pride from the French Catholic revival can afford to ignore this richly documented and analyzed study.
It has to be said, however, that just as you are warming to the style, proportion and restraint of this Catholic revival, you stumble across a case containing the severed hand of Father Kemble, the Herefordshire priest martyred in 1679.

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